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Those in Kayes. The impact of remittances on their recipients in Africa

  • Jean-Paul Azam

    ()

    (ARQADE, IDEI, University of Toulouse, Institut Universitaire de France and CSAE, Oxford)

  • Flore Gubert

    ()

    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

(English) This article briefly describes the Soninke labor migration, and interprets it as a means of diversifying risk in a context of missing insurance and credit markets. Historical and anthropological studies on this ethnic group are briefly surveyed, and suggest that it is not only the well-being of those left behind which is insured by the migrants, but also the pride of the clan. A simple partial-equilibrium model is developed to capture this phenomenon, which gives rise to moral hazard problems. This prediction is tested econometrically using an original data set collected by one of the authors in the Kayes area (Western Mali), the main source of Soninke labor migration to France. _________________________________ (français) Cet article décrit rapidement les migrations des Soninké et les interprète comme une stratégie de diversification des risques, à la lumière des développements théoriques récents. Les études historiques et ethnologiques de ces mouvements migratoires suggèrent que ce n'est pas seulement le bien-être des familles restant au village qui est assuré, mais également l'honneur du clan. Un modèle théorique en équilibre partiel est proposé pour saisir aussi simplement que possible ce phénomène. Celui-ci met en évidence le problème de risque moral qui en découle. Un test économétrique de cette prédiction est effectué sur des données d'enquête collectées par l'un des auteurs au sein de la région de Kayes (Mali), la principale zone d'origine des migrants maliens en France.

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File URL: http://www.dial.ird.fr/media/ird-sites-d-unites-de-recherche/dial/documents/publications/doc_travail/2002/2002-11
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Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2002/11.

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Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2002
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200211
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  1. Lucas, Robert E B & Stark, Oded, 1985. "Motivations to Remit: Evidence from Botswana," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(5), pages 901-18, October.
  2. J. A. Hausman, 1976. "Specification Tests in Econometrics," Working papers 185, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  3. Edward P. Lazear & Sherwin Rosen, 1979. "Rank-Order Tournaments as Optimum Labor Contracts," NBER Working Papers 0401, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Hoddinott, John, 1992. "Rotten Kids or Manipulative Parents: Are Children Old Age Security in Western Kenya?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(3), pages 545-65, April.
  5. Gubert, Flore, 2002. "Do Migrants Insure Those who Stay Behind? Evidence from the Kayes Area (Western Mali)," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/10842, Paris Dauphine University.
  6. Rapoport, Hillel & Docquier, Frederic, 2006. "The Economics of Migrants' Remittances," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, Elsevier.
  7. Faini, Riccardo & Venturini, Alessandra, 1993. "Trade, aid and migrations: Some basic policy issues," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 435-442, April.
  8. Dubois, Pierre, 2002. "Moral hazard, land fertility and sharecropping in a rural area of the Philippines," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 35-64, June.
  9. Gustafsson, Bjorn & Makonnen, Negatu, 1993. "Poverty and Remittances in Lesotho," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 2(1), pages 49-73, May.
  10. Banerjee, Biswajit & Kanbur, S M, 1981. "On the Specification and Estimation of Macro Rural-Urban Migration Functions: With an Application to Indian Data," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 43(1), pages 7-29, February.
  11. Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L., 1982. "International migration, non-traded goods and economic welfare in the source country," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 81-90, August.
  12. Stark, Oded & Taylor, J. Edward & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1988. "Migration, remittances and inequality : A sensitivity analysis using the extended Gini index," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 309-322, May.
  13. Wydick, Bruce, 1999. "Can Social Cohesion Be Harnessed to Repair Market Failures? Evidence from Group Lending in Guatemala," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(457), pages 463-75, July.
  14. de la Briere, Benedicte & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & de Janvry, Alain & Lambert, Sylvie, 2002. "The roles of destination, gender, and household composition in explaining remittances: an analysis for the Dominican Sierra," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 309-328, August.
  15. George E. Battese, 1997. "A Note On The Estimation Of Cobb-Douglas Production Functions When Some Explanatory Variables Have Zero Values," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(1-3), pages 250-252.
  16. Vincent H. Smith & Barry K. Goodwin, 1996. "Crop Insurance, Moral Hazard, and Agricultural Chemical Use," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(2), pages 428-438.
  17. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
  18. Udry, Christopher, 1996. "Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 1010-46, October.
  19. Djajic, Slobodan, 1986. "International migration, remittances and welfare in a dependent economy," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 229-234, May.
  20. Fafchamps, Marcel, 1992. "Solidarity Networks in Preindustrial Societies: Rational Peasants with a Moral Economy," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 147-74, October.
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