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The role of local nonfarm activities and migration in reducing poverty: evidence from Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda


  • Tomoya Matsumoto
  • Yoko Kijima
  • Takashi Yamano


By using cross-sectional data from Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda, this article estimates the determinants of the participation in local nonfarm activities and migration at the individual level and then estimates the determinants of farm and nonfarm income. The results indicate that schooling and local language ability increase participation in local nonfarm activities and migration. Schooling also is found to increase nonfarm income at the household level but not farm income. We also find that farm household members from low-potential agricultural areas are more likely to participate in local nonfarm activities and migration than those from high-potential agricultural areas. Thus, the results suggest that local nonfarm activities and migration offer employment opportunities for workers from low-potential agricultural areas. Indeed, the nonfarm activities and migration is likely to provide an important pathway to reduce poverty in low-potential agricultural areas in East Africa. Copyright 2006 International Association of Agricultural Economists.

Suggested Citation

  • Tomoya Matsumoto & Yoko Kijima & Takashi Yamano, 2006. "The role of local nonfarm activities and migration in reducing poverty: evidence from Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 35(s3), pages 449-458, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:agecon:v:35:y:2006:i:s3:p:449-458

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ahmed, Raisuddin & Hossain, Mahabub, 1990. "Developmental impact of rural infrastructure in Bangladesh:," Research reports 83, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
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    Cited by:

    1. Aiko Kikkawa & Keijiro Otsuka, 2016. "The Changing Landscape of International Migration : Evidence from Rural Households in Bangladesh, 2000-2014," GRIPS Discussion Papers 16-13, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
    2. Sosina Bezu & Christopher Barrett, 2012. "Employment Dynamics in the Rural Nonfarm Sector in Ethiopia: Do the Poor Have Time on Their Side?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(9), pages 1223-1240, September.
    3. Lay, Jann & Schüler, Dana, 2008. "Income Diversification and Poverty in a Growing Agricultural Economy: The Case of Ghana," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Zurich 2008 39, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
    4. repec:spr:ssefpa:v:9:y:2017:i:6:d:10.1007_s12571-017-0732-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Yamauchi, Futoshi & Muto, Megumi & Chowdhury, Shyamal & Dewina, Reno & Sumaryanto, Sony, 2011. "Are Schooling and Roads Complementary? Evidence from Income Dynamics in Rural Indonesia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 2232-2244.
    6. Muto, Megumi, 2009. "The impacts of mobile phone coverage expansion and personal networks on migration: evidence from Uganda," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China 51898, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    7. Smale, Melinda & Kusunose, Yoko & Mathenge, Mary K. & Alia, Didier, 2014. "Destination or Distraction? Querying the Linkage between Off-farm Income and Farm Investments in Kenya," Food Security International Development Working Papers 196829, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
    8. Mathenge, Mary K. & Smale, Melinda & Opiyo, Joseph, 2013. "Off-farm Work and Fertilizer Intensification among Smallholder Farmers in Kenya: A Cross-Crop Comparison," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150638, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    9. Kijima, Yoko & Otsuka, Keijiro & Futakuchi, Koichi, 2013. "The development of agricultural markets in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of rice in Uganda," African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 8(4), October.
    10. Adugna, Lemi, 2009. "Determinants of Income Diversification in Rural Ethiopia: evidence From Panel Data," Ethiopian Journal of Economics, Ethiopian Economics Association, vol. 18(1).
    11. Yamano, Takashi & Kijima, Yoko, 2010. "The associations of soil fertility and market access with household income: Evidence from rural Uganda," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 51-59, February.
    12. Lay, Jann & Mahmoud, Toman Omar & M'Mukaria, George Michuki, 2008. "Few Opportunities, Much Desperation: The Dichotomy of Non-Agricultural Activities and Inequality in Western Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 2713-2732, December.
    13. Bezu, Sosina & Holden, Stein, 2014. "Are Rural Youth in Ethiopia Abandoning Agriculture?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 259-272.

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