IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/ecosys/v40y2016i3p398-421.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Bank risk and performance in the MENA region: The importance of capital requirements

Author

Listed:
  • Bitar, Mohammad
  • Saad, Wadad
  • Benlemlih, Mohammed

Abstract

This paper benefits from various risk- and non-risk-based regulatory capital ratios and examines their impact on bank risk and performance in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Our findings suggest that compliance with the Basel capital requirements enhances bank protection against risk, and improves efficiency and profitability. The impact of capital requirements on bank performance is more pronounced for too-big-to-fail banks, banks in periods of crisis and banks in countries with good governance. The results are also robust when controlling for the Arab Spring transition period. Finally, endogeneity checks, alternative risk and performance measures, a principal component analysis and other estimation techniques confirm our findings.

Suggested Citation

  • Bitar, Mohammad & Saad, Wadad & Benlemlih, Mohammed, 2016. "Bank risk and performance in the MENA region: The importance of capital requirements," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 398-421.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecosys:v:40:y:2016:i:3:p:398-421
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ecosys.2015.12.001
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0939362516300504
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Blum, Jürg M., 2008. "Why 'Basel II' may need a leverage ratio restriction," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1699-1707, August.
    2. Barrios, Victor E. & Blanco, Juan M., 2003. "The effectiveness of bank capital adequacy regulation: A theoretical and empirical approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(10), pages 1935-1958, October.
    3. Banker, Rajiv D. & Chang, Hsihui & Lee, Seok-Young, 2010. "Differential impact of Korean banking system reforms on bank productivity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1450-1460, July.
    4. Berger, Allen N, 1995. "The Relationship between Capital and Earnings in Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(2), pages 432-456, May.
    5. Asli Demirguc-Kunt & Enrica Detragiache & Ouarda Merrouche, 2013. "Bank Capital: Lessons from the Financial Crisis," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45(6), pages 1147-1164, September.
    6. Berger, Allen N. & Bouwman, Christa H.S., 2013. "How does capital affect bank performance during financial crises?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(1), pages 146-176.
    7. Laeven, Luc & Levine, Ross, 2007. "Is there a diversification discount in financial conglomerates?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 331-367, August.
    8. Fiordelisi, Franco & Marques-Ibanez, David & Molyneux, Phil, 2011. "Efficiency and risk in European banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 1315-1326, May.
    9. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 2000. "Financial structure and bank profitability," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2430, The World Bank.
    10. Pejman Abedifar & Philip Molyneux & Amine Tarazi, 2013. "Risk in Islamic Banking," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 17(6), pages 2035-2096.
    11. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Hsieh, Meng-Fen, 2013. "The impact of bank capital on profitability and risk in Asian banking," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 251-281.
    12. Barth, James R. & Lin, Chen & Ma, Yue & Seade, Jesús & Song, Frank M., 2013. "Do bank regulation, supervision and monitoring enhance or impede bank efficiency?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2879-2892.
    13. Stiroh, Kevin J, 2004. "Diversification in Banking: Is Noninterest Income the Answer?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(5), pages 853-882, October.
    14. Baele, Lieven & De Jonghe, Olivier & Vander Vennet, Rudi, 2007. "Does the stock market value bank diversification?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1999-2023, July.
    15. Fadzlan Sufian, 2010. "The Impact of Risk on Banks’ Technical and Scale Efficiency: Empirical Evidence from the Chinese Banking Sector," The IUP Journal of Financial Economics, IUP Publications, vol. 0(1 & 2), pages 82-102, March & J.
    16. Asli Demirguc-Kunt & Edward J. Kane, 2002. "Deposit Insurance Around the Globe: Where Does It Work?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(2), pages 175-195, Spring.
    17. Agusman, Agusman & Monroe, Gary S. & Gasbarro, Dominic & Zumwalt, J.K., 2008. "Accounting and capital market measures of risk: Evidence from Asian banks during 1998-2003," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 480-488, April.
    18. Ben Naceur, Samy & Kandil, Magda, 2009. "The impact of capital requirements on banks' cost of intermediation and performance: The case of Egypt," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 70-89.
    19. Bilin Neyapti & N. Nergiz Dincer, 2014. "Macroeconomic Impact of Bank Regulation and Supervision: A Cross-Country Investigation," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(1), pages 52-70, January.
    20. Joe Crowley, 2008. "Credit Growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia Region," IMF Working Papers 2008/184, International Monetary Fund.
    21. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1997. "Efficiency of financial institutions: International survey and directions for future research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 175-212, April.
    22. Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 2010. "Bank activity and funding strategies: The impact on risk and returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(3), pages 626-650, December.
    23. Kim, Daesik & Santomero, Anthony M, 1988. " Risk in Banking and Capital Regulation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(5), pages 1219-1233, December.
    24. Fotios Pasiouras, 2008. "International evidence on the impact of regulations and supervision on banks’ technical efficiency: an application of two-stage data envelopment analysis," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 187-223, February.
    25. Douglas W. Diamond & Philip H. Dybvig, 2000. "Bank runs, deposit insurance, and liquidity," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, vol. 24(Win), pages 14-23.
    26. Shih, Victor & Zhang, Qi & Liu, Mingxing, 2007. "Comparing the performance of Chinese banks: A principal component approach," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 15-34.
    27. Andrew G. Haldane & Vasileios Madouros, 2012. "The dog and the frisbee," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 109-159.
    28. Klomp, Jeroen & Haan, Jakob de, 2012. "Banking risk and regulation: Does one size fit all?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 3197-3212.
    29. Yener Altunbas & Santiago Carbo & Edward P.M. Gardener & Philip Molyneux, 2007. "Examining the Relationships between Capital, Risk and Efficiency in European Banking," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 13(1), pages 49-70, January.
    30. Rime, Bertrand, 2001. "Capital requirements and bank behaviour: Empirical evidence for Switzerland," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 789-805, April.
    31. Staub, Roberta B. & da Silva e Souza, Geraldo & Tabak, Benjamin M., 2010. "Evolution of bank efficiency in Brazil: A DEA approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 202(1), pages 204-213, April.
    32. Elijah Brewer & Cheng Few Lee, 1986. "How the market judges bank risk," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, vol. 10(Nov), pages 25-31.
    33. Fabian Valencia & Luc Laeven, 2008. "Systemic Banking Crises; A New Database," IMF Working Papers 2008/224, International Monetary Fund.
    34. Bryant, John, 1980. "A model of reserves, bank runs, and deposit insurance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 335-344, December.
    35. Naceur, Sami Ben & Omran, Mohammed, 2011. "The effects of bank regulations, competition, and financial reforms on banks' performance," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 1-20, March.
    36. Vazquez, Francisco & Federico, Pablo, 2015. "Bank funding structures and risk: Evidence from the global financial crisis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 1-14.
    37. Dermine, Jean, 2015. "Basel III leverage ratio requirement and the probability of bank runs," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 266-277.
    38. Jacques, Kevin & Nigro, Peter, 1997. "Risk-based capital, portfolio risk, and bank capital: A simultaneous equations approach," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(6), pages 533-547.
    39. Iannotta, Giuliano & Nocera, Giacomo & Sironi, Andrea, 2007. "Ownership structure, risk and performance in the European banking industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 2127-2149, July.
    40. VanHoose, David, 2007. "Theories of bank behavior under capital regulation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(12), pages 3680-3697, December.
    41. Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-636, May-June.
    42. Valentina Flamini & Liliana B Schumacher & Calvin A McDonald, 2009. "The Determinants of Commercial Bank Profitability in Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 2009/015, International Monetary Fund.
    43. Furlong, Frederick T. & Keeley, Michael C., 1989. "Capital regulation and bank risk-taking: A note," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 883-891, December.
    44. Giuliano Iannotta, 2006. "Testing for Opaqueness in the European Banking Industry: Evidence from Bond Credit Ratings," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 30(3), pages 287-309, December.
    45. Beck, Thorsten & Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Merrouche, Ouarda, 2013. "Islamic vs. conventional banking: Business model, efficiency and stability," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 433-447.
    46. Arnold, Bruce & Borio, Claudio & Ellis, Luci & Moshirian, Fariborz, 2012. "Systemic risk, macroprudential policy frameworks, monitoring financial systems and the evolution of capital adequacy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 3125-3132.
    47. Fadzlan Sufian, 2010. "The impact of risk on technical and scale efficiency: empirical evidence from the China banking sector," International Journal of Business Performance Management, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 12(1), pages 37-71.
    48. International Monetary Fund, 2004. "Financial Sector Development in the Middle East and North Africa," IMF Working Papers 2004/201, International Monetary Fund.
    49. Hsiao, Hsing-Chin & Chang, Hsihui & Cianci, Anna M. & Huang, Li-Hua, 2010. "First Financial Restructuring and operating efficiency: Evidence from Taiwanese commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1461-1471, July.
    50. Canbas, Serpil & Cabuk, Altan & Kilic, Suleyman Bilgin, 2005. "Prediction of commercial bank failure via multivariate statistical analysis of financial structures: The Turkish case," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 166(2), pages 528-546, October.
    51. Cathcart, Lara & El-Jahel, Lina & Jabbour, Ravel, 2015. "Can regulators allow banks to set their own capital ratios?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 112-123.
    52. Barth, James R. & Lin, Chen & Lin, Ping & Song, Frank M., 2009. "Corruption in bank lending to firms: Cross-country micro evidence on the beneficial role of competition and information sharing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(3), pages 361-388, March.
    53. Fabian Valencia & Luc Laeven, 2012. "Systemic Banking Crises Database; An Update," IMF Working Papers 2012/163, International Monetary Fund.
    54. Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Detragiache, Enrica, 2011. "Basel Core Principles and bank soundness: Does compliance matter?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 179-190, December.
    55. Chortareas, Georgios E. & Girardone, Claudia & Ventouri, Alexia, 2012. "Bank supervision, regulation, and efficiency: Evidence from the European Union," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 292-302.
    56. Anginer, Deniz & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli, 2014. "Bank capital and systemic stability," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6948, The World Bank.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Bitar, Mohammad & Tarazi, Amine, 2019. "Creditor rights and bank capital decisions: Conventional vs. Islamic banking," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 69-104.
    2. Anupam Das Gupta & Syed Moudud-Ul-Huq, 2020. "Do competition and revenue diversification have significant effect on risk-taking? Empirical evidence from BRICS banks," International Journal of Financial Engineering (IJFE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 7(01), pages 1-28, March.
    3. Sarmiento, Miguel & Galán, Jorge E., 2017. "The influence of risk-taking on bank efficiency: Evidence from Colombia," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 52-73.
    4. Serhat Yuksel & Hasan Dincer & Senol Emir, 2017. "Comparing the performance of Turkish deposit banks by using DEMATEL, Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) and MOORA approaches," World Journal of Applied Economics, WERI-World Economic Research Institute, vol. 3(2), pages 26-47, December.
    5. Mohammad Bitar & M. Kabir Hassan & William J. Hippler, 2017. "Determinants of Bank Capital in Dual Banking Systems," NFI Working Papers 2017-WP-04, Indiana State University, Scott College of Business, Networks Financial Institute.
    6. Bitar, Mohammad & Pukthuanthong, Kuntara & Walker, Thomas, 2020. "Efficiency in Islamic vs. conventional banking: The role of capital and liquidity," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 46(C).
    7. Mohammad Bitar & M. Kabir Hassan & Kuntara Pukthuanthong & Thomas Walker, 2018. "The Performance of Islamic Vs. Conventional Banks: Evidence on the Suitability of the Basel Capital Ratios," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 29(5), pages 1003-1038, November.
    8. Changjun Zheng & Anupam Das Gupta & Syed Moudud-Ul-Huq, 2017. "Do market competition and development indicators matter for banks’ risk, capital, and efficiency relationship?," International Journal of Financial Engineering (IJFE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 4(02n03), pages 1-27, June.
    9. Zouaoui, Haykel & Zoghlami, Feten, 2020. "On the income diversification and bank market power nexus in the MENA countries: Evidence from a GMM panel-VAR approach," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C).
    10. Bitar, Mohammad & Kabir Hassan, M. & Hippler, William J., 2018. "The determinants of Islamic bank capital decisions," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 48-68.
    11. Ahmed A. Elamer & Collins G. Ntim & Hussein A. Abdou & Alaa Mansour Zalata & Mohamed Elmagrhi, 2019. "The impact of multi-layer governance on bank risk disclosure in emerging markets: the case of Middle East and North Africa," Accounting Forum, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(2), pages 246-281, April.
    12. Saeed, Momna & Izzeldin, Marwan & Hassan, M. Kabir & Pappas, Vasileios, 2020. "The inter-temporal relationship between risk, capital and efficiency: The case of Islamic and conventional banks," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    13. Niţoi, Mihai & Clichici, Dorina & Moagăr-Poladian, Simona, 2019. "The effects of prudential policies on bank leverage and insolvency risk in Central and Eastern Europe," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 148-160.
    14. Bitar, Mohammad & Hassan, M. Kabir & Walker, Thomas, 2017. "Political systems and the financial soundness of Islamic banks," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 18-44.
    15. Elamer, Ahmed A. & Ntim, Collins G. & Abdou, Hussein A. & Pyke, Chris, 2020. "Sharia supervisory boards, governance structures and operational risk disclosures: Evidence from Islamic banks in MENA countries," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 46(C).
    16. Louhichi, Awatef & Louati, Salma & Boujelbene, Younes, 2020. "The regulations–risk taking nexus under competitive pressure: What about the Islamic banking system?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(C).
    17. Miroslav Mateev, 2019. "Regulation and ownership effect on banks performance: New Evidence from the MENA region," Proceedings of Economics and Finance Conferences 8911196, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences.
    18. Priyonggo Suseno & Omar Bamahriz, 2017. "Examining the impact of bank’s risks to Islamic banks’ profitability," Economic Journal of Emerging Markets, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Department of Economics, vol. 9(2), pages 125-137, April.
    19. Afsana Yesmin, 2018. "Do competition and development indicators heterogeneously affect risk and capital? Evidence from Asian banks," International Journal of Financial Engineering (IJFE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 5(03), pages 1-18, September.
    20. Haque, Faizul & Brown, Kym, 2017. "Bank ownership, regulation and efficiency: Perspectives from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 273-293.
    21. Albaity, Mohamed & Mallek, Ray Saadaoui & Noman, Abu Hanifa Md., 2019. "Competition and bank stability in the MENA region: The moderating effect of Islamic versus conventional banks," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 310-325.
    22. Moudud-Ul-Huq, Syed & Ashraf, Badar Nadeem & Gupta, Anupam Das & Zheng, Changjun, 2018. "Does bank diversification heterogeneously affect performance and risk-taking in ASEAN emerging economies?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 342-362.
    23. Campmas, Alexandra, 2020. "How do European banks portray the effect of policy interest rates and prudential behavior on profitability?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Bitar, Mohammad & Pukthuanthong, Kuntara & Walker, Thomas, 2018. "The effect of capital ratios on the risk, efficiency and profitability of banks: Evidence from OECD countries," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 227-262.
    2. Bitar, Mohammad & Pukthuanthong, Kuntara & Walker, Thomas, 2020. "Efficiency in Islamic vs. conventional banking: The role of capital and liquidity," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 46(C).
    3. Bitar, Mohammad & Hassan, M. Kabir & Walker, Thomas, 2017. "Political systems and the financial soundness of Islamic banks," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 18-44.
    4. Bitar, Mohammad & Madiès, Philippe & Taramasco, Ollivier, 2017. "What makes Islamic banks different? A multivariate approach," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 215-235.
    5. Mohammad Bitar & M. Kabir Hassan & Kuntara Pukthuanthong & Thomas Walker, 2018. "The Performance of Islamic Vs. Conventional Banks: Evidence on the Suitability of the Basel Capital Ratios," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 29(5), pages 1003-1038, November.
    6. Conlon, Thomas & Cotter, John & Molyneux, Philip, 2020. "Beyond common equity: The influence of secondary capital on bank insolvency risk," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 47(C).
    7. Phan, Dinh Hoang Bach & Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Rahman, R. Eki & Hutabarat, Akhis R., 2020. "Do financial technology firms influence bank performance?," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    8. Saeed, Momna & Izzeldin, Marwan & Hassan, M. Kabir & Pappas, Vasileios, 2020. "The inter-temporal relationship between risk, capital and efficiency: The case of Islamic and conventional banks," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    9. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-413 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Muhammad Saifuddin Khan, 2018. "The Role of Liquidity in Financial Intermediation," PhD Thesis, Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney, number 1-2018, November.
    11. Louhichi, Awatef & Boujelbene, Younes, 2017. "Bank capital, lending and financing behaviour of dual banking systems," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 61-79.
    12. Ashraf, Badar Nadeem & Zheng, Changjun & Jiang, Chonghui & Qian, Ningyu, 2020. "Capital regulation, deposit insurance and bank risk: International evidence from normal and crisis periods," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C).
    13. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Hsieh, Meng-Fen, 2013. "The impact of bank capital on profitability and risk in Asian banking," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 251-281.
    14. Baselga-Pascual, Laura & Trujillo-Ponce, Antonio & Cardone-Riportella, Clara, 2015. "Factors influencing bank risk in Europe: Evidence from the financial crisis," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 138-166.
    15. Shaddady, Ali & Moore, Tomoe, 2019. "Investigation of the effects of financial regulation and supervision on bank stability: The application of CAMELS-DEA to quantile regressions," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 96-116.
    16. Changjun Zheng & Mohammed Mizanur Rahman & Munni Begum & Badar Nadeem Ashraf, 2017. "Capital Regulation, the Cost of Financial Intermediation and Bank Profitability: Evidence from Bangladesh," Journal of Risk and Financial Management, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(2), pages 1-24, April.
    17. Anachit Bagntasarian & Emmanuel Mamatzakis, 2019. "Testing for the underlying dynamics of bank capital buffer and performance nexus," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 52(2), pages 347-380, February.
    18. Tran, Vuong Thao & Lin, Chien-Ting & Nguyen, Hoa, 2016. "Liquidity creation, regulatory capital, and bank profitability," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 98-109.
    19. Bitar, Mohammad & Hassan, M. Kabir & Saad, Wadad, 2020. "Culture and the capital–performance nexus in dual banking systems," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 34-58.
    20. Hoque, Hafiz & Andriosopoulos, Dimitris & Andriosopoulos, Kostas & Douady, Raphael, 2015. "Bank regulation, risk and return: Evidence from the credit and sovereign debt crises," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 455-474.
    21. Triki, Thouraya & Kouki, Imen & Dhaou, Mouna Ben & Calice, Pietro, 2017. "Bank regulation and efficiency: What works for Africa?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PA), pages 183-205.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Basel capital; Too-big-to-fail; Arab Spring; Risk; Efficiency; Profitability;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • P5 - Economic Systems - - Comparative Economic Systems

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecosys:v:40:y:2016:i:3:p:398-421. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Nithya Sathishkumar). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/osteide.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.