IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/econom/v178y2014ip2p316-330.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Granger causality, exogeneity, cointegration, and economic policy analysis

Author

Listed:
  • White, Halbert
  • Pettenuzzo, Davide

Abstract

Policy analysis had long been a main interest of Clive Granger’s. Here, we present a framework for economic policy analysis that provides a novel integration of several fundamental concepts at the heart of Granger’s contributions to time-series analysis. We work with a dynamic structural system analyzed by White and Lu (2010) with well defined causal meaning; under suitable conditional exogeneity restrictions, Granger causality coincides with this structural notion. The system contains target and control subsystems, with possibly integrated or cointegrated behavior. We ensure the invariance of the target subsystem to policy interventions using an explicitly causal partial equilibrium recursivity condition. Policy effectiveness is ensured by another explicit causality condition. These properties only involve the data generating process; models play a subsidiary role. Our framework thus complements that of Ericsson et al. (1998) (EHM) by providing conditions for policy analysis alternative to weak, strong, and superexogeneity. This makes possible policy analysis for systems that may fail EHM’s conditions. It also facilitates analysis of the cointegrating properties of systems subject to policymaker control. We discuss a variety of practical procedures useful for analyzing such systems and illustrate with an application to a simple model of the US macroeconomy.

Suggested Citation

  • White, Halbert & Pettenuzzo, Davide, 2014. "Granger causality, exogeneity, cointegration, and economic policy analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 178(P2), pages 316-330.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:econom:v:178:y:2014:i:p2:p:316-330
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jeconom.2013.08.030
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304407613001942
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Engle, Robert F. & Hendry, David F., 1993. "Testing superexogeneity and invariance in regression models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1-2), pages 119-139, March.
    2. Stahl, Dale II & Wilson, Paul W., 1994. "Experimental evidence on players' models of other players," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 309-327, December.
    3. White, Halbert, 2006. "Time-series estimation of the effects of natural experiments," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 135(1-2), pages 527-566.
    4. Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 1998. "Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(1), pages 47-78, January.
    5. Francisco J. Ruge-Murciá, 2002. "A Prudent Central Banker," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 49(3), pages 1-7.
    6. Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Causality, cointegration, and control," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 551-559.
    7. Hendry, David F. & Massmann, Michael, 2007. "Co-Breaking: Recent Advances and a Synopsis of the Literature," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 25, pages 33-51, January.
    8. James D. Hamilton, 2008. "Daily Monetary Policy Shocks and the Delayed Response of New Home Sales," NBER Working Papers 14223, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Sargent, Thomas J, 1976. "A Classical Macroeconometric Model for the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(2), pages 207-237, April.
    10. Christiano, Lawrence J & Eichenbaum, Martin & Evans, Charles, 1996. "The Effects of Monetary Policy Shocks: Evidence from the Flow of Funds," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(1), pages 16-34, February.
    11. Fischer, Andreas M., 1993. "Weak exogeneity and dynamic stability in cointegrated VARs," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 167-170.
    12. Dahl Christian M. & Gonzalez-Rivera Gloria, 2003. "Identifying Nonlinear Components by Random Fields in the US GNP Growth. Implications for the Shape of the Business Cycle," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 7(1), pages 1-35, April.
    13. Halbert White & Xun Lu, 2010. "Granger Causality and Dynamic Structural Systems," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 8(2), pages 193-243, spring.
    14. Park, Joon Y. & Phillips, Peter C.B., 1989. "Statistical Inference in Regressions with Integrated Processes: Part 2," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(01), pages 95-131, April.
    15. Soren Johansen & Katarina Juselius, 2001. "Controlling Inflation in a Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Model with an Application to US Data," Discussion Papers 01-03, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
    16. Granger, C. W. J., 1973. "On the properties of forecasts used in optimal economic policy decisions," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 347-356.
    17. Chor-yiu SIN, 2004. "Estimation and Testing for Partially Nonstationary Vector Autoregressive Models with GARCH: WLS versus QMLE," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 476, Econometric Society.
    18. Buiter, Willem H, 1984. "Granger-Causality and Policy Effectiveness," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 51(202), pages 151-162, May.
    19. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    20. Chor-yiu SIN, 2004. "Estimation and Testing for Partially Nonstationary Vector Autoregressive Models with GARCH: WLS versus QMLE," Econometric Society 2004 Australasian Meetings 92, Econometric Society.
    21. Granger, Clive W. J. & Deutsch, Melinda, 1992. "Comments on the evaluation of policy models," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 497-516, August.
    22. Ericsson, Neil R & Hendry, David F & Mizon, Grayham E, 1998. "Exogeneity, Cointegration, and Economic Policy Analysis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 16(4), pages 370-387, October.
    23. Bernanke, Ben S & Blinder, Alan S, 1992. "The Federal Funds Rate and the Channels of Monetary Transmission," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 901-921, September.
    24. Hendry, David F, 1988. "The Encompassing Implications of Feedback versus Feedforward Mechanisms in Econometrics," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(1), pages 132-149, March.
    25. White,Halbert, 1996. "Estimation, Inference and Specification Analysis," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521574464, April.
    26. repec:adr:anecst:y:2002:i:67-68:p:03 is not listed on IDEAS
    27. M. Hashem Pesaran & Davide Pettenuzzo & Allan Timmermann, 2006. "Forecasting Time Series Subject to Multiple Structural Breaks," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 73(4), pages 1057-1084.
    28. Bec Frédérique & Ben Salem Mélika & Collard Fabrice, 2002. "Asymmetries in Monetary Policy Reaction Function: Evidence for U.S. French and German Central Banks," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(2), pages 1-22, July.
    29. Park, Joon Y. & Phillips, Peter C.B., 1988. "Statistical Inference in Regressions with Integrated Processes: Part 1," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(03), pages 468-497, December.
    30. Tillmann, Peter, 2011. "Parameter Uncertainty And Nonlinear Monetary Policy Rules," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(02), pages 184-200, April.
    31. Carlos Santos & David Hendry & Soren Johansen, 2008. "Automatic selection of indicators in a fully saturated regression," Computational Statistics, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 317-335, April.
    32. Castle, Jennifer & Shephard, Neil (ed.), 2009. "The Methodology and Practice of Econometrics: A Festschrift in Honour of David F. Hendry," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199237197.
    33. Hendry, David F., 1995. "Dynamic Econometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198283164.
    34. Søren Johansen & Bent Nielsen, 2008. "An analysis of the indicator saturation estimator as a robust regression," Discussion Papers 08-03, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
    35. Granger, C. W. J. & Newbold, Paul, 1986. "Forecasting Economic Time Series," Elsevier Monographs, Elsevier, edition 2, number 9780122951831 edited by Shell, Karl.
    36. Kurt Hornik & Friedrich Leisch & Christian Kleiber & Achim Zeileis, 2005. "Monitoring structural change in dynamic econometric models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(1), pages 99-121.
    37. Hamilton, James D, 2001. "A Parametric Approach to Flexible Nonlinear Inference," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(3), pages 537-573, May.
    38. Lee, Tae-Hwy & White, Halbert & Granger, Clive W. J., 1993. "Testing for neglected nonlinearity in time series models : A comparison of neural network methods and alternative tests," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 269-290, April.
    39. Monti, Francesca V., 2003. "Implementing optimal control in cointegrated I(1) structural VAR models," Working Paper Series 288, European Central Bank.
    40. A. Robert Nobay & David A. Peel, 2003. "Optimal Discretionary Monetary Policy in a Model of Asymmetric Central Bank Preferences," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(489), pages 657-665, July.
    41. Ruge-Murcia, Francisco J., 2004. "The inflation bias when the central bank targets the natural rate of unemployment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 91-107, February.
    42. Grayham E. Mizon & David F. Hendry, 1998. "Exogeneity, causality, and co-breaking in economic policy analysis of a small econometric model of money in the UK," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 267-294.
    43. Vincent P. Crawford & Nagore Iriberri, 2007. "Fatal Attraction: Salience, Naïveté, and Sophistication in Experimental "Hide-and-Seek" Games," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(5), pages 1731-1750, December.
    44. Stinchcombe, Maxwell B. & White, Halbert, 1998. "Consistent Specification Testing With Nuisance Parameters Present Only Under The Alternative," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 14(03), pages 295-325, June.
    45. Hamilton, James D., 2008. "Daily monetary policy shocks and new home sales," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(7), pages 1171-1190, October.
    46. Eric M. Leeper & Christopher A. Sims & Tao Zha, 1996. "What Does Monetary Policy Do?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 27(2), pages 1-78.
    47. Hendry, David F. & Richard, Jean-Francois, 1982. "On the formulation of empirical models in dynamic econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 3-33, October.
    48. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    49. David Hendry & Carlos Santos, 2010. "An Automatic Test of Super Exogeneity," Economics Series Working Papers 476, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    50. Chen, Xiaohong & White, Halbert, 1998. "Nonparametric Adaptive Learning with Feedback," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 190-222, September.
    51. Juselius, Katarina, 2006. "The Cointegrated VAR Model: Methodology and Applications," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199285679.
    52. Stock, James H, 1987. "Asymptotic Properties of Least Squares Estimators of Cointegrating Vectors," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(5), pages 1035-1056, September.
    53. Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774501.
    54. Chu, Chia-Shang James & Stinchcombe, Maxwell & White, Halbert, 1996. "Monitoring Structural Change," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(5), pages 1045-1065, September.
    55. Taylor, John B., 1993. "Discretion versus policy rules in practice," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 195-214, December.
    56. Camba-Méndez, Gonzalo & Kapetanios, George, 2008. "Statistical tests and estimators of the rank of a matrix and their applications in econometric modelling," Working Paper Series 850, European Central Bank.
    57. Durbin, J, 1970. "Testing for Serial Correlation in Least-Squares Regression When Some of the Regressors are Lagged Dependent Variables," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 38(3), pages 410-421, May.
    58. Karunaratne, Neil Dias, 1996. "Exchange rate intervention in Australia (December 1983 to May 1993)," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 397-417, August.
    59. White, Halbert, 2006. "Approximate Nonlinear Forecasting Methods," Handbook of Economic Forecasting, Elsevier.
    60. White, Halbert, 1982. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Misspecified Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 1-25, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Al-Sadoon, Majid M., 2014. "Geometric and long run aspects of Granger causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 178(P3), pages 558-568.
    2. Stolbov, Mikhail, 2014. "The causal linkages between sovereign CDS prices for the BRICS and major European economies," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 8, pages 1-43.
    3. Biørn, Erik, 2017. "Identification, Instruments, Omitted Variables, and Rudimentary Models: Fallacies in the ‘Experimental Approach’ to Econometrics," Memorandum 13/2017, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    4. El Benni, Nadja & Finger, Robert & Hediger, Werner, 2014. "Transmission of beef and veal prices in different marketing channels," 2014 International Congress, August 26-29, 2014, Ljubljana, Slovenia 182696, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    5. Majid M. Al-Sadoon, 2016. "The Linear Systems Approach to Linear Rational Expectations Models," Working Papers 875, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:econom:v:178:y:2014:i:p2:p:316-330. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jeconom .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.