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Heterogeneous expectations in the gold market: Specification and estimation

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  • Baur, Dirk G.
  • Glover, Kristoffer J.

Abstract

The increase in the price of gold between 2002 and 2011 appears to be a candidate for a potential asset price ‘bubble’, suggesting that chartists (feedback traders) were highly active in the gold market during this period. Hence, this paper develops and tests empirically several models incorporating heterogeneous expectations of agents, specifically fundamentalists and chartists, for the gold market. The empirical results show that both agent types are important in explaining historical gold prices but that the 10-year bull run of gold in the early 2000s is consistent with the presence of agents extrapolating long-term trends. Technically this paper is a further step toward providing an empirical foundation for certain assumptions used in the heterogeneous agents literature. For example, the empirical results presented in this paper compare the economical and statistical significance of numerous switching variable specifications that are generally only introduced ad hoc.

Suggested Citation

  • Baur, Dirk G. & Glover, Kristoffer J., 2014. "Heterogeneous expectations in the gold market: Specification and estimation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 116-133.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:dyncon:v:40:y:2014:i:c:p:116-133
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jedc.2014.01.001
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    Cited by:

    1. Aye, Goodness & Gupta, Rangan & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Kim, Won Joong, 2015. "Forecasting the price of gold using dynamic model averaging," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 257-266.
    2. Beckmann, Joscha & Berger, Theo & Czudaj, Robert, 2015. "Does gold act as a hedge or a safe haven for stocks? A smooth transition approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 16-24.
    3. Matthijs Lof, 2015. "Rational Speculators, Contrarians, and Excess Volatility," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 61(8), pages 1889-1901, August.
    4. Pierdzioch, Christian & Risse, Marian & Rohloff, Sebastian, 2016. "A quantile-boosting approach to forecasting gold returns," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 38-55.
    5. Ming, Lei & Yang, Shenggang & Cheng, Cheng, 2016. "The double nature of the price of gold—A quantitative analysis based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 125-131.
    6. Aboura Sofiane & Chevallier Julien & Jammazi Rania & Tiwari Aviral Kumar, 2016. "The place of gold in the cross-market dependencies," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 20(5), pages 567-586, December.
    7. Joscha Beckmann & Theo Berger & Robert Czudaj, 2019. "Gold price dynamics and the role of uncertainty," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(4), pages 663-681, April.
    8. repec:zbw:rwirep:0502 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Smales, Lee A. & Yang, Yi, 2015. "The importance of belief dispersion in the response of gold futures to macroeconomic announcements," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 292-302.
    10. O'Connor, Fergal A. & Lucey, Brian M. & Batten, Jonathan A. & Baur, Dirk G., 2015. "The financial economics of gold — A survey," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 186-205.
    11. Adrian Fernandez-Perez & Bart Frijns & Alireza Tourani-Rad & Jean-Philippe Weisskopf, 2019. "Behavioural heterogeneity in wine investments," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(30), pages 3236-3255, June.
    12. Saskia ter Ellen & Cars H. Hommes & Remco C.J. Zwinkels, 2017. "Comparing behavioural heterogeneity across asset classes," Working Paper 2017/12, Norges Bank.
    13. Joscha Beckmann & Theo Berger & Robert Czudaj, 2014. "Does Gold Act as a Hedge or a Safe Haven for Stocks? A Smooth Transition Approach," Ruhr Economic Papers 0502, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
    14. Tolhurst, Tor N., 2018. "A Model-Free Bubble Detection Method: Application to the World Market for Superstar Wines," 2018 Annual Meeting, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. 274387, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    15. Andrew Urquhart, 2017. "How predictable are precious metal returns?," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(14), pages 1390-1413, November.
    16. Białkowski, Jędrzej & Bohl, Martin T. & Stephan, Patrick M. & Wisniewski, Tomasz P., 2015. "The gold price in times of crisis," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 329-339.
    17. Schmidbauer, Harald & Rösch, Angi, 2018. "The impact of festivities on gold price expectation and volatility," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 117-131.
    18. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-470 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Saskia ter Ellen & Willem F.C. Verschoor, 2017. "Heterogeneous beliefs and asset price dynamics: a survey of recent evidence," Working Paper 2017/22, Norges Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gold price; Heterogeneous agents; Switching; Bubbles; STR models;

    JEL classification:

    • C51 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Construction and Estimation
    • D03 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Behavioral Microeconomics: Underlying Principles
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates

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