IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/corgov/v16y2008i5p460-474.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Beyond Dichotomy: The Curvilinear Impact of Employee Ownership on Firm Performance

Author

Listed:
  • Zied Guedri
  • Xavier Hollandts

Abstract

Manuscript type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study examines the impact of employee stock ownership and board employee representation on firm performance. Research Findings/Results: Results drawn from a longitudinal analysis of a sample of 230 French firms over the period 2000–2005 provide support for an inverted U‐shaped relationship between employee ownership and accounting‐based performance measures. However, this relationship is not supported when a market‐based performance measure is used. We also found that the inflection point of the inverted U‐shaped relationship between employee ownership and firm performance does not depend upon the level of employee representation on the board. Theoretical Implications: This study addresses the inconsistency of results found so far in the literature examining the performance implications of employee ownership by proposing a theoretical framework and providing empirical support for the hypothesis suggesting that the relationship between employee ownership and firm performance is not linear, but indeed, has an inverted U‐shape. Practical Implications: In a governance context characterized by a spectacular increase in employee ownership fostered by a pervasive support from both managers and government, our results suggest that performance implications of employee ownership are positive up to a certain point, after which the marginal effect of employee ownership on firm performance becomes negative. As a result, our findings suggest that managers and shareholders should be careful when launching and increasing the level of employee ownership to not go beyond specific inflection points.

Suggested Citation

  • Zied Guedri & Xavier Hollandts, 2008. "Beyond Dichotomy: The Curvilinear Impact of Employee Ownership on Firm Performance," Corporate Governance: An International Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(5), pages 460-474, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:corgov:v:16:y:2008:i:5:p:460-474
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8683.2008.00703.x
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8683.2008.00703.x
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1111/j.1467-8683.2008.00703.x?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jensen, Michael C & Meckling, William H, 1979. "Rights and Production Functions: An Application to Labor-managed Firms and Codetermination," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(4), pages 469-506, October.
    2. Jeremy C. Short & David J. Ketchen & Timothy B. Palmer & G. Tomas M. Hult, 2007. "Firm, strategic group, and industry influences on performance," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(2), pages 147-167, February.
    3. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1990. "Do Managerial Objectives Drive Bad Acquisitions?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(1), pages 31-48, March.
    4. David Sraer & David Thesmar, 2007. "Performance and Behavior of Family Firms: Evidence from the French Stock Market," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 5(4), pages 709-751, June.
    5. Jones, Derek C & Kato, Takao, 1995. "The Productivity Effects of Employee Stock-Ownership Plans and Bonuses: Evidence from Japanese Panel Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 391-414, June.
    6. Villalonga, Belen & Amit, Raphael, 2006. "How do family ownership, control and management affect firm value?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 385-417, May.
    7. Fauver, Larry & Fuerst, Michael E., 2006. "Does good corporate governance include employee representation? Evidence from German corporate boards," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 673-710, December.
    8. Chaplinsky, Susan & Niehaus, Greg, 1994. "The Role of ESOPs in Takeover Contests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(4), pages 1451-1470, September.
    9. Nicholas Wilson & Michael J. Peel, 1991. "The Impact on Absenteeism and Quits of Profit-Sharing and other Forms of Employee Participation," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 44(3), pages 454-468, April.
    10. Weitzman, Martin L, 1985. "The Simple Macroeconomics of Profit Sharing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(5), pages 937-953, December.
    11. Steen Thomsen & Torben Pedersen, 2000. "Ownership structure and economic performance in the largest european companies," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(6), pages 689-705, June.
    12. Faleye, Olubunmi & Mehrotra, Vikas & Morck, Randall, 2006. "When Labor Has a Voice in Corporate Governance," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 41(3), pages 489-510, September.
    13. Gamble, John E., 2000. "Management commitment to innovation and esop stock concentration," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 15(5-6), pages 433-447.
    14. Faccio, Mara & Lang, Larry H. P., 2002. "The ultimate ownership of Western European corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 365-395, September.
    15. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1989. "Alternative Mechanisms for Corporate Control," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(4), pages 842-852, September.
    16. Joseph Blasi & Michael Conte & Douglas Kruse, 1996. "Employee Stock Ownership and Corporate Performance among Public Companies," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 50(1), pages 60-79, October.
    17. Norman Frohlich & John Godard & Joe A. Oppenheimer & Frederick A. Starke, 1998. "Employee versus conventionally-owned and controlled firms: an experimental analysis," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(4-5), pages 311-326.
    18. Sangsoo Park & Moon H. Song, 1995. "Employee Stock Ownership Plans, Firm Performance, and Monitoring by Outside Blockholders," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 24(4), Winter.
    19. Derek C. Jones & Takao Kato, 1993. "The Scope, Nature, and Effects of Employee Stock Ownership Plans in Japan," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 46(2), pages 352-367, January.
    20. McConnell, John J. & Servaes, Henri, 1990. "Additional evidence on equity ownership and corporate value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 595-612, October.
    21. Sarah Brown & Fathi Fakhfakh & John G. Sessions, 1999. "Absenteeism and Employee Sharing: An Empirical Analysis Based on French Panel Data, 1981–1991," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 52(2), pages 234-251, January.
    22. Aaron A. Buchko, 1993. "The Effects Of Employee Ownership On Employee Attitudes: An Integrated Causal Model And Path Analysis," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(4), pages 633-657, July.
    23. William Pugh & John Jahera & Sharon Oswald, 1999. "ESOPs, takeover protection, and corporate decision-making," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 23(2), pages 170-183, June.
    24. Roberto Barontini & Lorenzo Caprio, 2006. "The Effect of Family Control on Firm Value and Performance: Evidence from Continental Europe," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 12(5), pages 689-723, November.
    25. Gordon, Lilli A. & Pound, John, 1990. "ESOPs and corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 525-555, October.
    26. Charles W. L. Hill & Scott A. Snell, 1988. "External control, corporate strategy, and firm performance in research‐intensive industries," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(6), pages 577-590, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Aubert, Nicolas & Kern, Alexander & Hollandts, Xavier, 2017. "Employee stock ownership and the cost of capital11We are grateful to the Editor in Chief, Thomas Lagoarde-Segot and to participants at 2016 French accounting association conference, 2015 French financ," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 67-78.
    2. Aubert, Nicolas & Garnotel, Guillaume & Lapied, André & Rousseau, Patrick, 2014. "Employee ownership: A theoretical and empirical investigation of management entrenchment vs. reward management," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 423-434.
    3. Nicolas Aubert & Alexander Kern & Xavier Hollandts, 2017. "Employee stock ownership and the cost of capital," Post-Print halshs-01502001, HAL.
    4. Mehdi Nekhili & Amal Boukadhaba & Haithem Nagati, 2021. "The ESG–financial performance relationship: Does the type of employee board representation matter?," Corporate Governance: An International Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(2), pages 134-161, March.
    5. Chung, Won Young & Lee, Jae-Gil & Seo, Jaeun & Kim, Jaeyun & Jo, Yuri & Lee, Daeho, 2022. "From whom should ICT startups raise capital? The effect of ownership structure on efficiency in new ICT startups," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 82-91.
    6. Thierry Poulain-Rehm & Xavier Lepers, 2012. "Does Employee Ownership Benefit Value Creation? The Case of France (2001–2005)," Post-Print hal-01382074, HAL.
    7. Nekhili, Mehdi & Nagati, Haithem & Chtioui, Tawhid & Rebolledo, Claudia, 2017. "Corporate social responsibility disclosure and market value: Family versus nonfamily firms," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 41-52.
    8. Xavier Hollandts & Nicolas Aubert, 2019. "La gouvernance salariale : contribution de la représentation des salariés à la gouvernance d’entreprise," Revue Finance Contrôle Stratégie, revues.org, vol. 22(1), pages 63-88, March.
    9. Georgeta Vintila & tefan Cristian Gherghina, 2015. "Does Ownership Structure Influence Firm Value? An Empirical Research towards the Bucharest Stock Exchange Listed Companies," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 5(2), pages 501-514.
    10. Dasilas, Apostolos, 2024. "The nonlinear relationship between employee stock ownership plans and firm performance: Evidence from China," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 173(C).
    11. Xavier Hollandts & Nicolas Aubert & Abdelmehdi Ben Abdelhamid & Victor Prieur, 2018. "Beyond Dichotomy: The Curvilinear Impact of Employee Ownership on CEO entrenchment," Post-Print halshs-01495427, HAL.
    12. JChristophe Estay & C. Lakshman & IJacques-Olivier Pesme, 2011. "Profit sharing in the nineteenth century: history of a controversial remuneration system," Social Responsibility Journal, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 7(2), pages 23-41, February.
    13. Park, Heejin & Noh, Jung-Hee & Pedersen, Melissa & Lee, Sora, 2022. "What are the determinants and managerial motivations for employee ownership in retirement pension plans?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 59(C).
    14. Zied Guedri & Xavier Hollandts & Nicolas Aubert, 2011. "Les| déterminants de la représentation des actionnaires salariés au conseil d'administration ou de surveillance," Post-Print hal-02312660, HAL.
    15. Steen Thomsen & Caspar Rose & Dorte Kronborg, 2016. "Employee representation and board size in the Nordic countries," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 471-490, December.
    16. Xavier Hollandts & Nicolas Aubert & Abdelmehdi Abdelhamid & Victor Prieur, 2017. "Beyond Dichotomy: The Curvilinear Impact of Employee Ownership on CEO entrenchment," Working Papers halshs-01495427, HAL.
    17. Ansgar Richter & Susanne Schrader, 2017. "Levels of Employee Share Ownership and the Performance of Listed Companies in Europe," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 55(2), pages 396-420, June.
    18. Ariefianto, Moch. Doddy & Trinugroho, Irwan & Yustika, Ahmad Erani & Soedarmono, Wahyoe, 2020. "The Role of Business Sophistication, Revenue Diversification, and Labor Relations on Firm Financing Choice," Jurnal Ekonomi Malaysia, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, vol. 54(3), pages 101-115.
    19. Fareeha Waseem & Syeda Fizza Abbas & Anum Farooq, 2022. "Nexus of Employee Stock Ownership with Cost of Capital: Evidence from KSE 100," iRASD Journal of Management, International Research Alliance for Sustainable Development (iRASD), vol. 4(1), pages 38-50, March.
    20. Thierry Poulain-Rehm & Xavier Lepers, 2013. "Does Employee Ownership Benefit Value Creation? The Case of France (2001–2005)," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 112(2), pages 325-340, January.
    21. KATO Takao & MIYAJIMA Hideaki & OWAN Hideo, 2016. "Does Employee Stock Ownership Work? Evidence from publicly-traded firms in Japan," Discussion papers 16073, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    22. Abdelnour Joseph & Aubert Nicolas & Campa Domenico, 2022. "Does employee ownership decrease agency costs? Evidence from French listed companies [L'actionnariat salarié réduit-il les coûts d'agence? Le cas des entreprises françaises cotées]," Post-Print hal-03723164, HAL.
    23. Steger, Thomas & Schubert, Christoph & Beisigel, Christina & Dietrich, Madeleine, 2019. "Mitarbeiterkapitalbeteiligung in KMU: Die Perspektive der Mitarbeiter/innen," Working Paper Forschungsförderung 129, Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Düsseldorf.
    24. Florackis, Chris & Kanas, Angelos & Kostakis, Alexandros, 2015. "Dividend policy, managerial ownership and debt financing: A non-parametric perspective," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 241(3), pages 783-795.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Xavier Hollandts & Zied Guedri & Nicolas Aubert, 2011. "Les déterminants de la représentation des actionnaires salariés au Conseil d’administration ou de surveillance," Post-Print halshs-01256775, HAL.
    2. Nicolas Aubert & Alexander Kern & Xavier Hollandts, 2017. "Employee stock ownership and the cost of capital," Post-Print halshs-01502001, HAL.
    3. Aubert, Nicolas & Kern, Alexander & Hollandts, Xavier, 2017. "Employee stock ownership and the cost of capital11We are grateful to the Editor in Chief, Thomas Lagoarde-Segot and to participants at 2016 French accounting association conference, 2015 French financ," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 67-78.
    4. repec:dau:papers:123456789/5892 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Xavier Hollandts & Nicolas Aubert & Abdelmehdi Ben Abdelhamid & Victor Prieur, 2018. "Beyond Dichotomy: The Curvilinear Impact of Employee Ownership on CEO entrenchment," Post-Print halshs-01495427, HAL.
    6. Xavier Hollandts & Nicolas Aubert & Abdelmehdi Abdelhamid & Victor Prieur, 2017. "Beyond Dichotomy: The Curvilinear Impact of Employee Ownership on CEO entrenchment," Working Papers halshs-01495427, HAL.
    7. Ansgar Richter & Susanne Schrader, 2017. "Levels of Employee Share Ownership and the Performance of Listed Companies in Europe," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 55(2), pages 396-420, June.
    8. Di Cai & Jin-hui Luo & Di-fang Wan, 2012. "Family CEOs: Do they benefit firm performance in China?," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 923-947, December.
    9. Tran Phan Huy Hieu, 2020. "Effectiveness of policy measures to promote employee share ownership programs in banks," Working Papers hal-02534814, HAL.
    10. Tran, Phan Huy Hieu, 2020. "Effectiveness of policy measures to promote employee share ownership programs in banks," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(C).
    11. Fareeha Waseem & Syeda Fizza Abbas & Anum Farooq, 2022. "Nexus of Employee Stock Ownership with Cost of Capital: Evidence from KSE 100," iRASD Journal of Management, International Research Alliance for Sustainable Development (iRASD), vol. 4(1), pages 38-50, March.
    12. Murro, Pierluigi & Peruzzi, Valentina, 2019. "Family firms and access to credit. Is family ownership beneficial?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 173-187.
    13. Zeineb Barka & Taher Hamza, 2020. "The effect of large controlling shareholders on equity prices in France: monitoring or entrenchment?," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 24(3), pages 769-798, September.
    14. Djaoudath Alidou, 2011. "Les augmentations de capital réservées aux salariés en France - Employee Equity Issue:Evidence from France," Working Papers CREGO 1110603, Université de Bourgogne - CREGO EA7317 Centre de recherches en gestion des organisations.
    15. Suveera Gill & Parmjit Kaur, 2015. "Family Involvement in Business and Financial Performance: A Panel Data Analysis," Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, , vol. 40(4), pages 395-420, December.
    16. Weiping Liu & Haibin Yang & Guangxi Zhang, 2012. "Does family business excel in firm performance? An institution-based view," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 965-987, December.
    17. Arosa, Blanca & Iturralde, Txomin & Maseda, Amaia, 2010. "Ownership structure and firm performance in non-listed firms: Evidence from Spain," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 88-96, June.
    18. Sacristán-Navarro, María & Gómez-Ansón, Silvia & Cabeza-García, Laura, 2011. "Large shareholders' combinations in family firms: Prevalence and performance effects," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 101-112, June.
    19. Park, Heejin & Noh, Jung-Hee & Pedersen, Melissa & Lee, Sora, 2022. "What are the determinants and managerial motivations for employee ownership in retirement pension plans?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 59(C).
    20. Aubert, Nicolas & Garnotel, Guillaume & Lapied, André & Rousseau, Patrick, 2014. "Employee ownership: A theoretical and empirical investigation of management entrenchment vs. reward management," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 423-434.
    21. Belot, François & Waxin, Timothée, 2022. "Mandatory employee board representation: Good news for family firms?," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(C).

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:corgov:v:16:y:2008:i:5:p:460-474. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing or Christopher F. Baum (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0964-8410&site=1 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.