IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/anr/reveco/v10y2018p505-539.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Macroeconomics of Rational Bubbles: A User's Guide

Author

Listed:
  • Alberto Martin

    (Centre de Recerca en Economia Internacional, 08005 Barcelona, Spain)

  • Jaume Ventura

    (Centre de Recerca en Economia Internacional, 08005 Barcelona, Spain)

Abstract

This review provides a guide to macroeconomic applications of the theory of rational bubbles. It shows that rational bubbles can be easily incorporated into standard macroeconomic models and illustrates how they can be used to account for important macroeconomic phenomena. It also discusses the welfare implications of rational bubbles and the role of policy in managing them. Finally, it provides a detailed review of the literature.

Suggested Citation

  • Alberto Martin & Jaume Ventura, 2018. "The Macroeconomics of Rational Bubbles: A User's Guide," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 10(1), pages 505-539, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:anr:reveco:v:10:y:2018:p:505-539
    DOI: 10.1146/annurev-economics-080217-053534
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-economics-080217-053534
    Download Restriction: Full text downloads are only available to subscribers. Visit the abstract page for more information.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1146/annurev-economics-080217-053534?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Óscar Arce & David López-Salido, 2011. "Housing Bubbles," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 212-241, January.
    2. Nicolas Coeurdacier & Stéphane Guibaud & Keyu Jin, 2015. "Credit Constraints and Growth in a Global Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(9), pages 2838-2881, September.
    3. Jordà, Òscar & Schularick, Moritz & Taylor, Alan M., 2015. "Leveraged bubbles," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(S), pages 1-20.
    4. Olivier, Jacques, 2000. "Growth-Enhancing Bubbles," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 41(1), pages 133-151, February.
    5. Aoki, Kosuke & Nakajima, Tomoyuki & Nikolov, Kalin, 2014. "Safe asset shortages and asset price bubbles," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 164-174.
    6. Ben S. Bernanke & Mark Gertler, 2001. "Should Central Banks Respond to Movements in Asset Prices?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 253-257, May.
    7. Jaume Ventura & Hans-Joachim Voth, 2015. "Debt into Growth: How Sovereign Debt Accelerated the First Industrial Revolution," Working Papers 830, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    8. Ricardo J. Caballero & Emmanuel Farhi & Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas, 2008. "An Equilibrium Model of "Global Imbalances" and Low Interest Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(1), pages 358-393, March.
    9. Gita Gopinath & Şebnem Kalemli-Özcan & Loukas Karabarbounis & Carolina Villegas-Sanchez, 2017. "Capital Allocation and Productivity in South Europe," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 132(4), pages 1915-1967.
    10. Jordi Gal?, 2014. "Monetary Policy and Rational Asset Price Bubbles," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(3), pages 721-752, March.
    11. Jordi Galí, 2016. "Monetary policy and bubbles in a new Keynesian model with overlapping generations," Economics Working Papers 1561, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Jan 2020.
    12. Daisuke Ikeda, 2013. "Monetary Policy and Inflation Dynamics in Asset Price Bubbles," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 13-E-4, Bank of Japan.
    13. Alberto Martin & Jaume Ventura, 2016. "Managing Credit Bubbles," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 14(3), pages 753-789.
    14. Refet S. Gürkaynak, 2008. "Econometric Tests Of Asset Price Bubbles: Taking Stock," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 166-186, February.
    15. Tomohiro Hirano & Noriyuki Yanagawa, 2017. "Asset Bubbles, Endogenous Growth, and Financial Frictions," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 84(1), pages 406-443.
    16. Caballero, Ricardo J. & Krishnamurthy, Arvind, 2006. "Bubbles and capital flow volatility: Causes and risk management," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 35-53, January.
    17. Manuel S. Santos & Michael Woodford, 1997. "Rational Asset Pricing Bubbles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(1), pages 19-58, January.
    18. Emmanuel Farhi & Jean Tirole, 2012. "Bubbly Liquidity," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(2), pages 678-706.
    19. Miao, Jianjun & Wang, Pengfei, 2015. "Banking bubbles and financial crises," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 763-792.
    20. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Moore, John, 1997. "Credit Cycles," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(2), pages 211-248, April.
    21. Alberto Martin & Jaume Ventura, 2012. "Economic Growth with Bubbles," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(6), pages 3033-3058, October.
    22. Aoki, Kosuke & Nikolov, Kalin, 2015. "Bubbles, banks and financial stability," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 33-51.
    23. Gilles Saint-Paul, 1992. "Fiscal Policy in an Endogenous Growth Model," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(4), pages 1243-1259.
    24. Vasco M. Carvalho & Alberto Martin & Jaume Ventura, 2012. "Understanding Bubbly Episodes," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 95-100, May.
    25. Vladimir Asriyan & Luca Fornaro & Alberto Martin & Jaume Ventura, 2016. "Monetary policy for a bubbly world," Economics Working Papers 1533, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Feb 2020.
    26. Daisuke Ikeda & Toan Phan, 2016. "Toxic asset bubbles," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 61(2), pages 241-271, February.
      • Daisuke Ikeda & Toan Phan, 2016. "Toxic asset bubbles," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 61(2), pages 241-271, February.
    27. Moritz Schularick & Alan M. Taylor, 2012. "Credit Booms Gone Bust: Monetary Policy, Leverage Cycles, and Financial Crises, 1870-2008," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(2), pages 1029-1061, April.
    28. Hirano, Tomohiro & Inaba, Masaru & Yanagawa, Noriyuki, 2015. "Asset bubbles and bailouts," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(S), pages 71-89.
    29. Kocherlakota, Narayana R., 1992. "Bubbles and constraints on debt accumulation," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 245-256.
    30. Bengui, Julien & Phan, Toan, 2018. "Asset pledgeability and endogenously leveraged bubbles," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 280-314.
    31. Froot, Kenneth A & Obstfeld, Maurice, 1991. "Intrinsic Bubbles: The Case of Stock Prices," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1189-1214, December.
    32. Paul A. Samuelson, 1958. "An Exact Consumption-Loan Model of Interest with or without the Social Contrivance of Money," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 467-467.
    33. Blanchard, Olivier J, 1985. "Debt, Deficits, and Finite Horizons," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(2), pages 223-247, April.
    34. Daisuke Ikeda & Toan Phan & Timothy Sablik, 2020. "Asset Bubbles and Global Imbalances," Richmond Fed Economic Brief, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, vol. 20, pages 1-4, January.
    35. Alberto Martin & Jaume Ventura, 2011. "Theoretical Notes on Bubbles and the Current Crisis," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 59(1), pages 6-40, April.
    36. Basco, Sergi, 2014. "Globalization and financial development: A model of the Dot-Com and the Housing Bubbles," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 78-94.
    37. David Perez-Reyna & Xavier Freixas, 2017. "Gilded Bubbles," 2017 Meeting Papers 1482, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    38. Ventura, Jaume, 2012. "Bubbles and capital flows," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 147(2), pages 738-758.
    39. Gadi Barlevy & Douglas Gale & Franklin Allen, 2017. "On Interest Rate Policy and Asset Bubbles," 2017 Meeting Papers 489, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    40. Miao, Jianjun & Wang, Pengfei, 2014. "Sectoral bubbles, misallocation, and endogenous growth," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 153-163.
    41. Miao, Jianjun, 2014. "Introduction to economic theory of bubbles," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 130-136.
    42. Grossman, Gene M. & Yanagawa, Noriyuki, 1993. "Asset bubbles and endogenous growth," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 3-19, February.
    43. Bo Zhao, 2015. "Rational housing bubble," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 60(1), pages 141-201, September.
    44. Hanson, Andrew & Phan, Toan, 2017. "Bubbles, wage rigidity, and persistent slumps," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 151(C), pages 66-70.
    45. Daisuke Ikeda & Toan Phan, 2013. "Asset Bubbles & Global Imbalances," Working Papers 2013-41, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    46. Tirole, Jean, 1985. "Asset Bubbles and Overlapping Generations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1499-1528, November.
    47. Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark, 1989. "Agency Costs, Net Worth, and Business Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 14-31, March.
    48. Feng Dong & Jianjun Miao & Pengfei Wang, 2020. "Asset Bubbles and Monetary Policy," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 37, pages 68-98, August.
    49. Martin, Alberto & Ventura, Jaume, 2015. "The international transmission of credit bubbles: Theory and policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(S), pages 37-56.
    50. Basco, Sergi, 2016. "Switching bubbles: From Outside to Inside Bubbles," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 236-255.
    51. Woodford, Michael, 1990. "Public Debt as Private Liquidity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 382-388, May.
    52. King, Ian & Ferguson, Don, 1993. "Dynamic inefficiency, endogenous growth, and Ponzi games," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 79-104, August.
    53. Menahem E. Yaari, 1965. "Uncertain Lifetime, Life Insurance, and the Theory of the Consumer," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 32(2), pages 137-150.
    54. Pablo A. Guerron-Quintana & Tomohiro Hirano & Ryo Jinnai, 2018. "Recurrent Bubbles, Economic Fluctuations, and Growth," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 18-E-5, Bank of Japan.
    55. Blanchard, Olivier Jean, 1979. "Speculative bubbles, crashes and rational expectations," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 387-389.
    56. Philippe Weil, 1987. "Confidence and the Real Value of Money in an Overlapping Generations Economy," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 102(1), pages 1-22.
    57. Changyong Rhee, 1991. "Dynamic Inefficiency in an Economy with Land," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(4), pages 791-797.
    58. Azariadis Costas & Smith Bruce D., 1993. "Adverse Selection in the Overlapping Generations Model: The Case of Pure Exchange," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 277-305, August.
    59. Stephen F. Le Roy, 2004. "Rational Exuberance," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 783-804, September.
    60. Hirano, Tomohiro & Inaba, Masaru & Yanagawa, Noriyuki, 2015. "Asset Bubbles and Bailouts," HIT-REFINED Working Paper Series 19, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    61. Jacques Olivier, 2000. "Growth-Enhancing Bubbles," Post-Print hal-00460097, HAL.
    62. Tripathy, Jagdish, 2017. "Bubbly equilibria with credit misallocation," Bank of England working papers 649, Bank of England.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Shengguo Li & Jiaqi Liu & Jichang Dong & Xuerong Li, 2021. "20 Years of Research on Real Estate Bubbles, Risk and Exuberance: A Bibliometric Analysis," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(17), pages 1-24, August.
    2. Robert Kollmann, 2020. "Rational Bubbles in Non-Linear Business Cycle Models: Closed and Open Economies," Working Papers ECARES 2020-02, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    3. Siddhartha Biswas & Andrew Hanson & Toan Phan, 2018. "Bubbly Recessions," Working Paper 18-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
    4. Daisuke Ikeda & Toan Phan & Timothy Sablik, 2020. "Asset Bubbles and Global Imbalances," Richmond Fed Economic Brief, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, vol. 20, pages 1-4, January.
    5. Alberto Martín & Enrique Moral-Benito & Tom Schmitz, 2021. "The Financial Transmission of Housing Booms: Evidence from Spain," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 111(3), pages 1013-1053, March.
    6. Laura Nowzohour & Livio Stracca, 2020. "More Than A Feeling: Confidence, Uncertainty, And Macroeconomic Fluctuations," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(4), pages 691-726, September.
    7. Jordi Galí, 2016. "Monetary policy and bubbles in a new Keynesian model with overlapping generations," Economics Working Papers 1561, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Jan 2020.
    8. Vuillemey, Guillaume & Wasmer, Etienne, 2020. "Frictional unemployment with stochastic bubbles," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 122(C).
    9. Vladimir Asriyan & Luca Fornaro & Alberto Martin & Jaume Ventura, 2016. "Monetary Policy for a Bubbly World," NBER Working Papers 22639, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Leo Ferraris & Fabrizio Mattesini, 2020. "Money and Collateral," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 52(7), pages 1617-1644, October.
    11. Bejamin Eden, 2018. "Real Interest Policy And The Housing Cycle," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 18-00006, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
    12. Bengui, Julien & Phan, Toan, 2018. "Asset pledgeability and endogenously leveraged bubbles," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 280-314.
    13. Takaaki Ohnishi & Takayuki Mizuno & Tsutomu Watanabe, 2019. "House Price Dispersion in Boom-Bust Cycles: Evidence from Tokyo," Working Papers on Central Bank Communication 008, University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Economics.
    14. Takaaki Ohnishi & Takayuki Mizuno & Tsutomu Watanabe, 2019. "House Price Dispersion in Boom-Bust Cycles: Evidence from Tokyo," CARF F-Series CARF-F-461, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
    15. Alberto Martín & Enrique Moral-Benito & Tom Schmitz, 2018. "The Financial Transmission of Housing Bubbles: Evidence from Spain," Working Papers 625, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
    16. Stefano Bosi & Thai Ha-Huy & Cao-Tung Pham & Ngoc-Sang Pham, 2021. "Ascendant altruism and asset price bubbles," Working Papers halshs-03409931, HAL.
    17. Christophe Blot & Paul Hubert & Fabien Labondance, 2018. "Monetray policy and asset price bubbles," Sciences Po publications 37, Sciences Po.
    18. Pham, Ngoc-Sang & Le Van, Cuong & Bosi, Stefano, 2019. "Real indeterminacy and dynamics of asset price bubbles in general equilibrium," MPRA Paper 96834, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Stefano Bosi & Cuong Le Van & Ngoc-Sang Pham, 2021. "Real indeterminacy and dynamics of asset price bubbles in general equilibrium," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-02993656, HAL.
    20. Stefano Bosi & Cuong Le Van & Ngoc-Sang Pham, 2021. "Real indeterminacy and dynamics of asset price bubbles in general equilibrium," Working Papers halshs-02993656, HAL.
    21. Alexis Derviz, 2019. "Coexistence of Physical and Crypto Assets in a Stochastic Endogenous Growth Model," Working Papers 2019/7, Czech National Bank.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Takuma Kunieda & Tarishi Matsuoka & Akihisa Shibata, 2017. "Asset Bubbles, Technology Choice, and Financial Crises," Discussion Paper Series 157, School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin University, revised Feb 2017.
    2. Miao, Jianjun, 2014. "Introduction to economic theory of bubbles," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 130-136.
    3. Jordi Galí, 2016. "Monetary policy and bubbles in a new Keynesian model with overlapping generations," Economics Working Papers 1561, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Jan 2020.
    4. Toan Phan & Andrew Hanson & Siddhartha Biswas, 2018. "Bubbly Recessions," 2018 Meeting Papers 440, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    5. Jia Pengfei & Lim King Yoong, 2021. "Tax Policy and Toxic Housing Bubbles in China," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 21(1), pages 151-183, January.
    6. Hashimoto, Ken-ichi & Im, Ryonghun & Kunieda, Takuma, 2020. "Asset Bubbles, Unemployment, and a Financial Crisis," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    7. Daisuke Ikeda & Toan Phan, 2016. "Toxic asset bubbles," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 61(2), pages 241-271, February.
      • Daisuke Ikeda & Toan Phan, 2016. "Toxic asset bubbles," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 61(2), pages 241-271, February.
    8. Miao, Jianjun & Wang, Pengfei & Zhou, Jing, 2015. "Asset bubbles, collateral, and policy analysis," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(S), pages 57-70.
    9. Bengui, Julien & Phan, Toan, 2018. "Asset pledgeability and endogenously leveraged bubbles," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 280-314.
    10. Bo Zhao, 2015. "Rational housing bubble," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 60(1), pages 141-201, September.
    11. Bidian, Florin, 2016. "Robust bubbles with mild penalties for default," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 141-153.
    12. Daisuke Ikeda & Toan Phan & Timothy Sablik, 2020. "Asset Bubbles and Global Imbalances," Richmond Fed Economic Brief, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, vol. 20, pages 1-4, January.
    13. Hirano, Tomohiro & Inaba, Masaru & Yanagawa, Noriyuki, 2015. "Asset bubbles and bailouts," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(S), pages 71-89.
    14. Mathieu Boullot, 2017. "Secular Stagnation, Liquidity Trap and Rational Asset Price Bubbles," Working Papers halshs-01295012, HAL.
    15. Miao, Jianjun & Wang, Pengfei, 2014. "Sectoral bubbles, misallocation, and endogenous growth," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 153-163.
    16. Hirano, Tomohiro & Yanagawa, Noriyuki, 2010. "Asset Bubbles, Endogenous Growth, and Financial Frictions," MPRA Paper 24085, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Feng Dong & Jianjun Miao & Pengfei Wang, 2020. "Asset Bubbles and Monetary Policy," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 37, pages 68-98, August.
    18. Andrew Graczyk & Toan Phan, 2018. "Regressive Welfare Effects of Housing Bubbles," Working Paper 18-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
    19. Ken-ichi Hashimoto & Ryonghun Im & Takuma Kunieda & Akihisa Shibata, 2020. "Asset Bubbles, Unemployment, and Financial Market Frictions," Discussion Papers 2013, Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University.
    20. Ryosuke Shimizu, 2018. "Bubbles, growth and imperfection of credit market in a two-country model," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 353-377, August.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    bubbles; business cycles; credit; economic growth; financial frictions; pyramid schemes;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • O40 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:anr:reveco:v:10:y:2018:p:505-539. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.annualreviews.org .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: http://www.annualreviews.org (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.annualreviews.org .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.