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Optionen für eine CO2-Preisreform

Author

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  • Edenhofer, Ottmar
  • Flachsland, Christian
  • Kalkuhl, Matthias
  • Knopf, Brigitte
  • Pahle, Michael

Abstract

Die deutsche Klimapolitik benötigt eine grundlegende Neuausrichtung. Deutschland muss im Rahmen der EU-Lastenteilungsverordnung bis 2030 seine Emissionen im Verkehrs-, Gebäude- und Landwirtschaftssektor sowie in Teilen des Industrie- und Energiesektors um 38 Prozent gegenüber 2005 vermindern, sonst drohen erhebliche Strafzahlungen. Das erfordert einen deutlich steileren CO2-Reduktionspfad als in den vergangenen Jahren. Die Regierung plant daher, bis zum Ende des Jahres ein Klimaschutzgesetz zu verabschieden. Mit der aktuellen Ausrichtung von Energiewende und Klimapolitik kann dieses Ziel allerdings nicht erreicht werden, weil die bestehenden ökonomischen Anreize unzureichend sind und für Investoren und Innovatoren erhebliche Unsicherheiten über die zukünftige Ausrichtung der Klimapolitik bestehen. Außerdem sind die bisherigen Maßnahmen sozial unausgewogen. Der klimapolitische Rahmen muss dringend auf das zentrale Ziel ausgerichtet werden, also das Vermeiden von CO2-Emissionen. Der CO2-Preis sollte zum Leitinstrument der Klimapolitik werden. Gleichzeitig wächst die Unzufriedenheit mit dem unzureichenden klimapolitischen Fortschritt in breiten Teilen der Gesellschaft: Die nationalen Klimaziele für 2020 werden verfehlt. Die Jugend, prominent vertreten durch die "Fridays for Future"-Bewegung, sieht die Lebensgrundlagen ihrer eigenen und künftiger Generationen in Gefahr. Klimaschutz ist zu einem zentralen Thema in der Mitte der Gesellschaft geworden. Daraus ist ein unmittelbarer klimapolitischer Handlungsdruck entstanden, der für eine umfassende Reform der Klimapolitik genutzt werden sollte. Die nötigen Reformen lassen sich nur durch einen Paradigmenwechsel erreichen, bei dem auch die Umwelt- und Klimapolitik an den grundlegenden Prinzipien der Sozialen Marktwirtschaft ausgerichtet wird. Dabei gilt es den Wettbewerb um die günstigsten Vermeidungstechnologien zu fördern, Investitionssicherheit zu stärken, die Gesamtkosten für die Erreichung der Ziele möglichst gering zu halten und die Belastungen gerecht über Haushalte und Unternehmen zu verteilen. Ordnungsrecht und Förderprogramme sollten künftig nur eine ergänzende Rolle einnehmen. Im Zentrum der Neuausrichtung muss eine umfassende und koordinierte Bepreisung der CO2-Emissionen stehen. Die Ausgestaltung einer deutschen CO2-Preisreform sollte von Beginn an als Dreiklang gedacht werden: Erstens muss der Konvergenzpunkt eine europaweit harmonisierte CO2-Bepreisung sein. Zweitens sollte Deutschland als Zwischenschritt zügig eine nationale CO2-Preisreform umsetzen, um seine Ziele im Rahmen der EU-Lastenteilungsverordnung zu erreichen. Drittens sollte die europäische CO2-Preisreform Grundlage für erfolgreiche internationale Klimaverhandlungen werden. Mit dieser Reform haben Deutschland und Europa die Chance, nicht nur die europäische Klimapolitik voranzubringen, sondern auch ihre Position in den internationalen Verhandlungen zu verbessern.

Suggested Citation

  • Edenhofer, Ottmar & Flachsland, Christian & Kalkuhl, Matthias & Knopf, Brigitte & Pahle, Michael, 2019. "Optionen für eine CO2-Preisreform," Working Papers 04/2019, German Council of Economic Experts / Sachverständigenrat zur Begutachtung der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:svrwwp:042019
    Note: MCC-PIK-Expertise für den Sachverständigenrat zur Begutachtung der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung.
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    1. Edenhofer Ottmar & Kalkuhl Matthias & Ockenfels Axel, 2020. "Das Klimaschutzprogramm der Bundesregierung: Eine Wende der deutschen Klimapolitik?," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, De Gruyter, vol. 21(1), pages 4-18, April.
    2. Ulrich Eydam & Francesca Diluiso, 2022. "How to Redistribute the Revenues from Climate Policy? A Dynamic Perspective with Financially Constrained Households," CEPA Discussion Papers 45, Center for Economic Policy Analysis.
    3. Eydam, Ulrich & Diluiso, Francesca, 2022. "How to Redistribute the Revenues from Climate Policy? A Dynamic Perspective with Heterogeneous Households," VfS Annual Conference 2022 (Basel): Big Data in Economics 264076, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    4. Rüb, Daniel, 2024. "Inequality beyond income quantiles: Distributional effects of climate mitigation policies," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 216(C).
    5. Berger, Johannes & Strohner, Ludwig & Thomas, Tobias, 2020. "Klimainstrumente im Vergleich: Herausforderungen in Hinblick auf ökologische, ökonomische und soziale Nachhaltigkeit," Policy Notes 39, EcoAustria – Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Christian Traeger & Grischa Perino & Karen Pittel & Till Requate & Alex Schmitt, 2020. "The Flexcap – An Innovative CO2 Pricing for Germany," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 18(01), pages 42-48, April.

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