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Forecast uncertainty, disagreement, and the linear pool

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  • Knüppel, Malte
  • Krüger, Fabian

Abstract

The linear pool is the most popular method for combining density forecasts. We analyze the linear pool's implications concerning forecast uncertainty in a new theoretical framework that focuses on the mean and variance of each density forecast to be combined. Our results show that, if the variance predictions of the individual forecasts are unbiased, the well-known 'disagreement' component of the linear pool exacerbates the upward bias of the linear pool's variance prediction. Moreover, we find that disagreement has no predictive content for ex-post forecast uncertainty under conditions which can be empirically relevant. These findings suggest the removal of the disagreement component from the linear pool. The resulting centered linear pool outperforms the linear pool in simulations and in empirical applications to inflation and stock returns.

Suggested Citation

  • Knüppel, Malte & Krüger, Fabian, 2019. "Forecast uncertainty, disagreement, and the linear pool," Discussion Papers 28/2019, Deutsche Bundesbank.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:bubdps:282019
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Knüppel, Malte & Schultefrankenfeld, Guido, 2019. "Assessing the uncertainty in central banks’ inflation outlooks," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 1748-1769.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods

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