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Forecast uncertainty, disagreement, and the linear pool

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  • Malte Knüppel
  • Fabian Krüger

Abstract

The linear pool is the most popular method for combining density forecasts. We analyze its implications concerning forecast uncertainty, using a new framework that focuses on the means and variances of the individual and combined forecasts. Our results show that, if the variance predictions of the individual forecasts are unbiased, the well‐known “disagreement” component of the linear pool exacerbates the upward bias of its variance prediction. This finding suggests the removal of the disagreement component from the linear pool. The resulting centered linear pool outperforms the linear pool in simulations and an empirical application to inflation.

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  • Malte Knüppel & Fabian Krüger, 2022. "Forecast uncertainty, disagreement, and the linear pool," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 37(1), pages 23-41, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:japmet:v:37:y:2022:i:1:p:23-41
    DOI: 10.1002/jae.2834
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    Cited by:

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    4. Knotek, Edward S. & Zaman, Saeed, 2023. "Real-time density nowcasts of US inflation: A model combination approach," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 1736-1760.

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    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods

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