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Fertility Responses to Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV

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Abstract

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions reduce the cumulative probability of transmission from a HIV positive woman to her child by as much as 40 percentage points. This paper is the first economic analysis of the behavioral effects of PMTCT. I examine fertility responses to the scale-up of PMTCT in Zambia, a country where approximately 15 percent of adults age 15-49 are HIV positive. My results suggest that the local introduction of PMTCT reduced pregnancy rates by up to 20 percent, that the fertility response was greater among women who were more likely to be HIV positive, and that PMTCT substantially increased breastfeeding rates.

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  • Nicholas Wilson, 2011. "Fertility Responses to Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV," Center for Development Economics 2011-08, Department of Economics, Williams College, revised Sep 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:wil:wilcde:2011-08
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    Cited by:

    1. Adrienne M. Lucas & Nicholas L. Wilson, 2013. "Adult Antiretroviral Therapy and Child Health: Evidence from Scale-Up in Zambia," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(3), pages 456-461, May.
    2. Carol Osler & Xuhang Wang, 2012. "The Microstructure of Currency Markets," Working Papers 49, Brandeis University, Department of Economics and International Businesss School.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Fertility; HIV/AIDS; PMTCT; reproductive technology; Zambia;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth

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