IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wbk/wbrwps/6107.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Financial literacy around the world : an overview of the evidence with practical suggestions for the way forward

Author

Listed:
  • Xu, Lisa
  • Zia, Bilal

Abstract

Financial literacy programs are fast becoming a key ingredient in financial policy reform worldwide. Yet, what is financial literacy exactly and what do we know of its effectiveness? This paper collects insights from the literature thus far and summarizes global evidence on financial literacy, its correlates, and existing and upcoming causal investigations. The authors conclude with a synthesis of policy advice and practical suggestions for the way forward in this fast growing area of research.

Suggested Citation

  • Xu, Lisa & Zia, Bilal, 2012. "Financial literacy around the world : an overview of the evidence with practical suggestions for the way forward," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6107, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6107
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2012/06/27/000158349_20120627090058/Rendered/PDF/WPS6107.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Karlan, Dean S. & Zinman, Jonathan, 2009. "Expanding Microenterprise Credit Access: Using Randomized Supply Decisions to Estimate the Impacts in Manila," CEPR Discussion Papers 7396, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Margarida Abreu & Victor Mendes, 2010. "Financial literacy and portfolio diversification," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(5), pages 515-528.
    3. Diana J. Beal & Sarath B. Delpachitra, 2003. "Financial Literacy Among Australian University Students," Economic Papers, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 22(1), pages 65-78, March.
    4. Bruhn, Miriam & Zia, Bilal, 2011. "Stimulating managerial capital in emerging markets : the impact of business and financial literacy for young entrepreneurs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5642, The World Bank.
    5. Laurent E. Calvet & John Y. Campbell & Paolo Sodini, 2009. "Measuring the Financial Sophistication of Households," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 393-398, May.
    6. Marcel Fafchamps & David McKenzie & Simon Quinn & Christopher Woodruff, 2011. "When is capital enough to get female microenterprises growing? Evidence from a randomized experiment in Ghana," CSAE Working Paper Series 2011-11, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    7. Alejandro Drexler & Greg Fischer & Antoinette Schoar, 2014. "Keeping It Simple: Financial Literacy and Rules of Thumb," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 6(2), pages 1-31, April.
    8. Rob Alessie & Maarten van Rooij & Annamaria Lusardi, 2011. "Financial Literacy, Retirement Preparation and Pension Expectations in the Netherlands," CeRP Working Papers 110, Center for Research on Pensions and Welfare Policies, Turin (Italy).
    9. Bucher-Koenen, Tabea & Ziegelmeyer, Michael, 2011. "Who lost the most? Financial Literacy, Cognitive Abilities, and the Financial Crisis," MEA discussion paper series 11234, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
    10. Nicholas Bloom & Aprajit Mahajan & David McKenzie & John Roberts, 2010. "Why Do Firms in Developing Countries Have Low Productivity?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 619-623, May.
    11. Karlan, Dean & Zinman, Jonathan, 2009. "Expanding Microenterprise Credit Access: Randomized Supply Decisions to Estimate the Impacts in Manila," Working Papers 68, Yale University, Department of Economics.
    12. Jere R. Behrman & Olivia S. Mitchell & Cindy Soo & David Bravo, 2010. "Financial Literacy, Schooling, and Wealth Accumulation," NBER Working Papers 16452, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Angela Hung & Erik Meijer & Kata Mihaly & Joanne K. Yoong, 2009. "Building Up, Spending Down Financial Literacy, Retirement Savings Management, and Decumulation," Working Papers 712, RAND Corporation.
    14. Mano, Yukichi & Iddrisu, Alhassan & Yoshino, Yutaka & Sonobe, Tetsushi, 2012. "How Can Micro and Small Enterprises in Sub-Saharan Africa Become More Productive? The Impacts of Experimental Basic Managerial Training," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 458-468.
    15. Johan Almenberg & Jenny Säve-Söderbergh, 2011. "Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Sweden," CeRP Working Papers 112, Center for Research on Pensions and Welfare Policies, Turin (Italy).
    16. Jing Cai & Alain De Janvry & Elisabeth Sadoulet, 2015. "Social Networks and the Decision to Insure," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 7(2), pages 81-108, April.
    17. Pascaline Dupas & Jonathan Robinson, 2013. "Savings Constraints and Microenterprise Development: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 163-192, January.
    18. Pirmin Fessler & Martin Schürz & Karin Wagner & Beat Weber, 2007. "Financial Capability of Austrian Households," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 3, pages 50-67.
    19. Pahnke, Luise & Honekamp, Ivonne, 2010. "Different Effects of Financial Literacy and Financial Education in Germany," MPRA Paper 22900, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Suresh de Mel & David McKenzie & Christopher Woodruff, 2009. "Returns to Capital in Microenterprises: Evidence from a Field Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 124(1), pages 423-423.
    21. Erica Field & Seema Jayachandran & Rohini Pande, 2010. "Do Traditional Institutions Constrain Female Entrepreneurship? A Field Experiment on Business Training in India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 125-129, May.
    22. Raquel Fonseca & Kathleen J. Mullen & Gema Zamarro & Julie Zissimopoulos, 2012. "What Explains the Gender Gap in Financial Literacy? The Role of Household Decision Making," Journal of Consumer Affairs, Wiley Blackwell, pages 90-106.
    23. Leora Klapper & Georgios A. Panos, 2011. "Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in View of a Growing Youth Demographic: The Russian Case," CeRP Working Papers 114, Center for Research on Pensions and Welfare Policies, Turin (Italy).
    24. Gine, Xavier & Menand, Lev & Townsend, Robert & Vickery, James, 2010. "Microinsurance : a case study of the Indian rainfall index insurance market," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5459, The World Bank.
    25. Miriam Bruhn & Dean Karlan & Antoinette Schoar, 2010. "What Capital Is Missing in Developing Countries?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 629-633, May.
    26. Christopher B. Bumcrot & Judy Lin & Annamaria Lusardi, 2011. "The Geography of Financial Literacy," Working Papers WR-893-SSA, RAND Corporation.
    27. Margaret Clancy & Michal Grinstein-Weiss & Mark Schreiner, 2001. "Financial Education and Savings Outcomes in Individual Development Accounts," HEW 0108001, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 27 Dec 2001.
    28. Landerretche, Oscar M. & Martínez, Claudia, 2013. "Voluntary savings, financial behavior, and pension finance literacy: evidence from Chile," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(03), pages 251-297, July.
    29. Fornero, Elsa & Monticone, Chiara, 2011. "Financial literacy and pension plan participation in Italy," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(04), pages 547-564, October.
    30. Fornero, Elsa & Rossi, Mariacristina & Urzí Brancati, Maria Cesira, 2016. "Explaining why, right or wrong, (Italian) households do not like reverse mortgages," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(02), pages 180-202, April.
    31. Bali Swain, Ranjula & Varghese, Adel, 2010. "Microfinance ‘Plus’: The Impact of Business Training on Indian Self Help Groups," Working Paper Series 2010:24, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    32. Veronica Frisancho & Dean Karlan & Martin Valdivia, 2008. "Business Training for Microfinance Clients: How it Matters and for Whom?," Working Papers PMMA 2008-11, PEP-PMMA.
    33. Angela Hung & Erik Meijer & Kata Mihaly & Joanne K. Yoong, 2009. "Building Up, Spending Down Financial Literacy, Retirement Savings Management, and Decumulation," Working Papers WR-712, RAND Corporation.
    34. Courchane, Marsha & Gailey, Adam & Zorn, Peter, 2008. "Consumer credit literacy: What price perception," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 125-138.
    35. Duca, John V. & Kumar, Anil, 2014. "Financial literacy and mortgage equity withdrawals," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 62-75.
    36. Mary A. Burke & Michael Manz, 2011. "Economic literacy and inflation expectations: evidence from a laboratory experiment," Public Policy Discussion Paper 11-8, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Bruhn, Miriam & de Souza Leao, Luciana & Legovini, Arianna & Marchetti, Rogelio & Zia, Bilal, 2013. "The impact of high school financial education : experimental evidence from Brazil," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6723, The World Bank.
    2. Margaret Miller & Julia Reichelstein & Christian Salas & Bilal Zia, 2015. "Can You Help Someone Become Financially Capable? A Meta-Analysis of the Literature," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 30(2), pages 220-246.
    3. Antonia Grohmann & Annekathrin Schoofs, 2018. "Financial Literacy and Intra-Household Decision Making: Evidence from Rwanda," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1720, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    4. Dean Karlan, Aishwarya Lakshmi Ratan, Jonathan Zinman, 2013. "Savings by and for the Poor: A Research Review and Agenda-Working Paper 346," Working Papers 346, Center for Global Development.
    5. Kiliyanni, Abdul Latheef & Sivaraman, Sunitha, 2016. "The perception-reality gap in financial literacy: Evidence from the most literate state in India," International Review of Economics Education, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 47-64.
    6. Dean Karlan & Aishwarya Lakshmi Ratan & Jonathan Zinman, 2014. "Savings by and for the Poor: A Research Review and Agenda," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 60(1), pages 36-78, March.
    7. World Bank Group, 2014. "Enhancing Financial Capability and Inclusion in Morocco : A Demand-Side Assessment," World Bank Other Operational Studies 21503, The World Bank.
    8. Berry, James & Karlan, Dean & Pradhan, Menno, 2018. "The Impact of Financial Education for Youth in Ghana," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 71-89.
    9. Rekha Reddy & Miriam Bruhn & Congyan Tan, 2013. "Financial Capability in Mexico : Results from a National Survey on Financial Behaviors, Attitudes, and Knowledge
      [Capacidades financieras en México : resultados de la encuesta nacional sobre compor
      ," World Bank Other Operational Studies 16756, The World Bank.
    10. Grohmann, Antonia & Kouwenberg, Roy & Menkhoff, Lukas, 2015. "Childhood roots of financial literacy," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 114-133.
    11. repec:khe:scajes:v:4:y:2018:i:2:p:51-60 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Gangwar, Rachna & Singh, Ritvik, 2018. "Analyzing Factors Affecting Financial Literacy and its Impact on Investment Behavior among Adults in India," EconStor Preprints 183168, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
    13. repec:scn:financ:y:2017:i:6:p:138-153 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Bruhn, Miriam & Lara Ibarra, Gabriel & McKenzie, David, 2013. "Why is voluntary financial education so unpopular ? Experimental evidence from Mexico," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6439, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Financial Literacy; Access to Finance; Education For All; Access&Equity in Basic Education; Primary Education;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6107. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/dvewbus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.