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A taxonomy of financial crisis resolution mechanisms : cross-country experience

Author

Listed:
  • Calomiris, Charles W
  • Klingebiel, Daniela
  • Laeven, Luc

Abstract

The goals of financial restructuring are to re-establish the creditor-debtor relationships upon which the economy depends for an efficient allocation of capital, and to accomplish that objective at minimal cost. Costs include direct costs to taxpayers of financial assistance and the indirect costs to the economy that result from misallocations of capital and incentive problems resulting from the restructuring. The authors review cases in which countries employed alternative mechanisms to restructure their financial and corporate sectors. Countries typically apply a combination of tools, including decentralized, market-based mechanisms and government-managed programs. Market-based strategies seek to strengthen the capital base of financial institutions and/or borrowers to enable them to renegotiate debt and resume new credit supply. Government-led restructuring strategies often include the establishment of an entity to which non-performing loans are transferred or the government's sale of financial institutions, sometimes to foreign entrants. Market-based mechanisms can, in principle, resolve coordination problems countries face in the wake of massive debtor and creditor insolvency, with acceptably low direct and indirect costs, particularly when those mechanisms are effective in achieving the desirable objective of selectivity. However, these mechanisms depend for their success on an efficient judicial system, a credible supervisory framework and authority with sufficient enforcement capacity, and a lack of corruption in implementation. Government-managed programs may not seem to depend as much on efficient legal and supervisory institutions for their success, but in fact these approaches, in particular the transfer of assets to government-owned asset management companies, also depend on effective legal, regulatory, and political institutions for their success. Further, a lack of attention to incentive problems when designing specific rules governing financial assistance can aggravate moral hazard problems, unnecessarily raising the costs of resolution. These results suggest that policymakers in emerging market economies with weak institutions should not expect to achieve the same level of success in financial restructuring as other countries, and that they should design resolution mechanisms accordingly. Despite the theoretical attraction of some complex market-based mechanisms, simpler resolution mechanisms that afford quick resolution of outstanding debts, that improve financial system competitiveness, and that offer little discretion to governments are most effective.

Suggested Citation

  • Calomiris, Charles W & Klingebiel, Daniela & Laeven, Luc, 2004. "A taxonomy of financial crisis resolution mechanisms : cross-country experience," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3379, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3379
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Christophe Blot & Jérôme Creel & Christine Rifflart & Danielle Schweisguth, 2009. "Petit manuel de stratégies de sortie de crise. Comment rebondir pour éviter l'enlisement ?," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(3), pages 335-381.
    2. Ambrosius, Christian, 2015. "Policy Constraints and the Recovery from Banking Crises," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112983, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    3. Jonung, Lars, 2009. "Financial Crisis and Crisis Management in Sweden. Lessons for Today," ADBI Working Papers 165, Asian Development Bank Institute.
    4. Parinduri, Rasyad A. & Riyanto, Yohanes E., 2012. "The Impact of the Strategic Sale of Restructured Banks: Evidence from Indonesia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 446-457.
    5. Barbara Stallings, 2004. "Financial Liberalization, Crisis, and Rescue: Lessons for China from Latin America and East Asia?," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 48078, Inter-American Development Bank.
    6. Niinimaki, J.-P., 2012. "Hidden loan losses, moral hazard and financial crises," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-14.
    7. Miroslav Kollár & Luboš Komárek, 2009. "Možnosti řešení problematických aktiv komerčních bank
      [Selective Approaches and Experiences with Problematic Assets in Banking Sector]
      ," Politická ekonomie, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2009(5), pages 601-621.
    8. Ureche-Rangau, Loredana & Burietz, Aurore, 2013. "One crisis, two crises…the subprime crisis and the European sovereign debt problems," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 35-44.

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