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Exchange Rate Pass-through in a Small Open Economy

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Abstract

Several small open economies switched to inflation targeting during the 1990s, thereby giving up various forms of exchange rate targeting in favour of flexible exchange rates. Norway did the same early in 2001, and has thereafter experienced highly varying nominal exchange rates with consumer price inflation dropping far below the target during 2003 and 2004. Knowledge of the degree of exchange rate pass-through to import prices and further to consumer prices is essential for inflation targeting. The literature suggests that pass-through is greater to import prices than to consumer prices, which presumably is related to the role of distributors in the economy. We present empirical evidence on these issues for Norway by estimating import price equations and a dynamic model of the distributors pricing behaviour. Using a large-scale macroeconometric model of the Norwegian economy, we find exchange rate pass-through to import prices to be quite rapid in the short run, while pass-through to consumer prices seems to be modest. We show that, among the numerous channels through which the exchange rate operate, trade margins in the distribution sector act as cushions to exchange rate fluctuations, thereby being one of the main important source for the delay in pass-through. In spite of moderate pass-through to consumer prices, we find inflationary effects of exchange rate changes even in the short run, an insight important for inflation targeting central banks.

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  • Pål Boug & Ådne Cappelen & Torbjørn Eika, 2005. "Exchange Rate Pass-through in a Small Open Economy," Discussion Papers 429, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:ssb:dispap:429
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    Cited by:

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    2. Ledenyov, Dimitri O. & Ledenyov, Viktor O., 2015. "Wave function method to forecast foreign currencies exchange rates at ultra high frequency electronic trading in foreign currencies exchange markets," MPRA Paper 67470, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Shioji, Etsuro, 2015. "Time varying pass-through: Will the yen depreciation help Japan hit the inflation target?," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 43-58.
    4. Pål Boug & Ådne Cappelen & Anders Rygh Swensen, 2006. "The New Keynesian Phillips Curve for a Small Open Economy," Discussion Papers 460, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
    5. Davis, J. Scott & Huang, Kevin X.D., 2011. "International real business cycles with endogenous markup variability," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 302-316.
    6. Takatoshi Ito & Kiyotaka Sato, 2008. "Exchange Rate Changes and Inflation in Post‐Crisis Asian Economies: Vector Autoregression Analysis of the Exchange Rate Pass‐Through," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(7), pages 1407-1438, October.
    7. Guney, Selin, 2015. "An Analysis of the Pass-Through of Exchange Rates in Tropical Forest Product Markets: A Smooth Transition Approach," 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco, California 205107, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    8. Enrique G. Mandoza & Vivian Z. Yue, 2008. "A solution to the default risk-business cycle disconnect," International Finance Discussion Papers 924, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    9. Raphael A. Auer, 2015. "Exchange Rate Pass‐Through, Domestic Competition, and Inflation: Evidence from the 2005–08 Revaluation of the Renminbi," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 47(8), pages 1617-1650, December.
    10. Matthieu Bussière & Simona Delle Chiaie & Tuomas A Peltonen, 2014. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through in the Global Economy: The Role of Emerging Market Economies," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 62(1), pages 146-178, April.
    11. Corsetti, Giancarlo & Dedola, Luca & Leduc, Sylvain, 2010. "Optimal Monetary Policy in Open Economies," Handbook of Monetary Economics, in: Benjamin M. Friedman & Michael Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 16, pages 861-933, Elsevier.
    12. Gita Gopinath, 2015. "The International Price System," NBER Working Papers 21646, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Crucini, Mario J. & Davis, J. Scott, 2016. "Distribution capital and the short- and long-run import demand elasticity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 203-219.
    14. Burstein, Ariel & Gopinath, Gita, 2014. "International Prices and Exchange Rates," Handbook of International Economics, in: Gopinath, G. & Helpman, . & Rogoff, K. (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 0, pages 391-451, Elsevier.
    15. Gong Liutang & Wang Chan & Zou Heng-Fu, 2020. "Optimal monetary policy in a model of vertical production and trade with reference currency," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 20(1), pages 1-21, January.
    16. Thomas von Brasch & Marit Linnea Gjelsvik & Victoria Sparrman, 2018. "Deunionization and job polarization – a macroeconomic model analysis for a small open economy," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(3), pages 380-399, July.
    17. Villoria, Nelson, 2008. "Estimation of Missing Intra-African Trade," GTAP Research Memoranda 2915, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University.
    18. Ibrahim L. Awad, 2019. "Revisiting the Exchange Rate Pass-Through to Domestic Inflation in Egypt: Why Is the Statistical Association Weak in the Short Run?," International Journal of Business and Economics, School of Management Development, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, vol. 18(1), pages 59-78, June.
    19. Winters, L Alan & Fernandes, Ana P., 2018. "The effect of exchange rate shocks on firm-level exports: evidence from the Brexit vote," CEPR Discussion Papers 13253, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    20. Bussière, M. & Delle Chiaie, S. & Peltonen, T. A., 2013. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through in the Global Economy," Working papers 424, Banque de France.
    21. Chang Shu & Xiaojing Su, 2009. "Exchange Rate Pass‐through in China," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 17(1), pages 33-46, January.

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    Keywords

    Exchange rate pass-through; pricing behaviour; the distribution sector; econometric modelling and macroeconomic analysis;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C51 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Construction and Estimation
    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange

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