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Pricing to Market when the Exchange Rate Changes


  • Paul Krugman


It has been widely remarked that US import prices have not fully reflected movements in the exchange rate. This paper begins with an investigation of the actual extent of "pricing to market" by foreign suppliers. It shows that pricing to market is a real phenomenon, but not universal; in particular, evidence on German export prices suggests that stickiness of import prices is largely confined to machinery and transport equipment. The paper then considers a number of possible models. While the evidence is not sufficient to distinguish among thesemodels, it seems probable that a full explanation will involve both dynamics and imperfect competition.

Suggested Citation

  • Paul Krugman, 1986. "Pricing to Market when the Exchange Rate Changes," NBER Working Papers 1926, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:1926
    Note: ITI IFM

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Girton, Lance & Henderson, Dale W., 1976. "Financial capital movements and central bank behavior in a two-country, short-run portfolio balance model," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 33-61, January.
    2. William H. Branson & Julio J. Rotemberg, 1991. "International Adjustment with Wage Rigidity," NBER Chapters,in: International Volatility and Economic Growth: The First Ten Years of The International Seminar on Macroeconomics, pages 13-44 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Taylor, John B., 1985. "International coordination in the design of macroeconomic policy rules," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(1-2), pages 53-81.
    4. Gilles Oudiz & Jeffrey Sachs, 1984. "Macroeconomic Policy Coordination among the Industrial Economies," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 15(1), pages 1-76.
    5. Jeffrey Sachs, 1980. "Wages, Flexible Exchange Rates, and Macroeconomic Policy," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 94(4), pages 731-747.
    6. Svensson, Lars E O & Razin, Assaf, 1983. "The Terms of Trade and the Current Account: The Harberger-Laursen-Metzler Effect," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(1), pages 97-125, February.
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