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Formal Sector Price Discoveries: Preliminary Results from a Developing Country

Author

Listed:
  • Muhammad Ali Choudhary

    () (State Bank of Pakistan)

  • Saima Naeem

    () (State Bank of Pakistan)

  • Abdul Faheem

    () (State Bank of Pakistan)

  • Muhammad Nadim Hanif

    () (State Bank of Pakistan)

  • Farooq Pasha

    () (State Bank of Pakistan)

Abstract

We present preliminary results of 1086 structured interviews about price setting behavior of the formal firms in the manufacturing and services sector of Pakistan. Our key discoveries are that frequency of price change is considerably high in Pakistan, lowering the real impact of monetary policy. Price rigidity is explained mainly by firms caring about relative prices and the persistence of a given shock. The exchange rate and cost shocks are more important than financial and demand shocks for both setting prices and also the readiness with which these pass-through to the economy. Large firms change prices more frequently compared to smaller firms. Formal sector firms, especially medium sized firms, interact more with informal sector firms through the demand and supply channels. Formal firms highly connected with the informal sector have lower frequency of price changes. Formal sector firms hold lack of taxes and compliance with tax regime, i.e. enforcement, as the main reasons for the existence of the informal sector.

Suggested Citation

  • Muhammad Ali Choudhary & Saima Naeem & Abdul Faheem & Muhammad Nadim Hanif & Farooq Pasha, 2011. "Formal Sector Price Discoveries: Preliminary Results from a Developing Country," SBP Working Paper Series 42, State Bank of Pakistan, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:sbp:wpaper:42
    as

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    File URL: http://www.sbp.org.pk/repec/sbp/wpaper/wp42.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Wasim Shahid Malik & Ahsan ul Haq Satti & Ghulam Saghir, 2008. "Price Setting Behaviour of Pakistani Firms: Evidence from Four Industrial Cities of Punjab," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(3), pages 247-266.
    2. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 2010. "Monetary Policy in Emerging Markets: A Survey," NBER Working Papers 16125, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Fabiani, Silvia & Loupias, Claire & Martins, Fernando & Sabbatini, Roberto (ed.), 2007. "Pricing Decisions in the Euro Area: How Firms Set Prices and Why," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195309287.
    4. Martins, Fernando, 2005. "The price setting behaviour of Portuguese firms: evidence from survey data," Working Paper Series 562, European Central Bank.
    5. Guillermo E. Perry & William F. Maloney & Omar S. Arias & Pablo Fajnzylber & Andrew D. Mason & Jaime Saavedra-Chanduvi, 2007. "Informality : Exit and Exclusion," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6730.
    6. Frankel, Jeffrey, 2010. "Monetary Policy in Emerging Markets," Handbook of Monetary Economics,in: Benjamin M. Friedman & Michael Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 25, pages 1439-1520 Elsevier.
    7. Rotemberg, Julio J, 1982. "Sticky Prices in the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1187-1211, December.
    8. Emi Nakamura & Jón Steinsson, 2008. "Five Facts about Prices: A Reevaluation of Menu Cost Models," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 123(4), pages 1415-1464.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Adnan Haider & Musleh ud Din & Ejaz Ghani, 2012. "Monetary Policy, Informality and Business Cycle Fluctuations in a Developing Economy Vulnerable to External Shocks," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 51(4), pages 609-681.
    2. Waqas Ahmed & Farooq Pasha & Sajawal Khan & Muhammad Rehman, 2012. "Pakistan Economy DSGE Model with Informality," SBP Working Paper Series 47, State Bank of Pakistan, Research Department.
    3. Adnan Haider & Asad Jan & Kalim Hyder, 2013. "On the (Ir)Relevance of Monetary Aggregate Targeting in Pakistan: An Eclectic View," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(2), pages 65-119, July-Dec.
    4. M. Ali Choudhary & Saima Mahmood & Sajawal Khan & Waqas Ahmed & Gylfi Zoega, 2013. "Sticky Wages in a Developing Country: Lessons from Structured Interviews in Pakistan," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0213, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
    5. Marco Airaudo & Edward F Buffie & Luis-Felipe Zanna, 2016. "Inflation Targeting and Exchange Rate Management In Less Developed Countries," IMF Working Papers 16/55, International Monetary Fund.
    6. repec:sbp:journl:71 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Hanif, Muhammad Nadim & Malik, Muhammad Jahanzeb, 2015. "Evaluating Performance of Inflation Forecasting Models of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 66843, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Shahzad Ahmad & Farooq Pasha, 2015. "A Pragmatic Model for Monetary Policy Analysis I: The Case of Pakistan," SBP Research Bulletin, State Bank of Pakistan, Research Department, vol. 11, pages 1-42.
    9. Muhammad Nadim Hanif & Muhammad Jahanzeb Malik & Javed Iqbal, 2016. "Intrinsic Inflation Persistence in a Developing Country," SBP Research Bulletin, State Bank of Pakistan, Research Department, vol. 12, pages 19-42.
    10. Hanif, Muhammad Nadim, 2012. "A Note on Food Inflation in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 45009, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 11 Mar 2013.
    11. Ahmad, Yamin S. & Staveley-O’Carroll, Olena M., 2017. "Exploring international differences in inflation dynamics," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 115-135.
    12. Shah Hussein & Amna Saeed & Amer Hassan, 2011. "The Financial Accelerator: An Emerging Market Story," Working Papers id:4551, eSocialSciences.
    13. repec:eee:jimfin:v:81:y:2018:i:c:p:159-184 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Nominal price rigidity; price setting; shock dissemination; state and time dependant rules; informal economy;

    JEL classification:

    • E5 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development

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