IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/rbp/wpaper/2019-014.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Reserve requirements as a financial stability instrument

Author

Listed:
  • Cantú, Carlos

    (Bank for International Settlements)

  • Gondo, Rocio

    (Banco Central de Reserva del Perú)

  • Martínez, Berenice

    (Bank for International Settlements)

Abstract

We quantify the economic trade-offs of using reserve requirements (RR) with a financial stability objective. We estimate the costs of a tightening in RR by calculating the fall of bank credit and industrial production growth in a panel VAR. Then, we estimate the benefits by calculating the drop in frequency and incidence of financial distress episodes in an early warning system model. We find that RR are an effective financial stability tool. The economic gains from a lower probability of financial distress more than compensate the initial reduction in economic activity. Additionally, we find that the effects of RR, both in terms of costs and benefits, are greater in emerging market economies compared to advanced economies. Finally, we show that single RR and RR by maturity have a greater positive effect, whereas RR by currency could be responding to other objectives such as financial dedollarisation.

Suggested Citation

  • Cantú, Carlos & Gondo, Rocio & Martínez, Berenice, 2019. "Reserve requirements as a financial stability instrument," Working Papers 2019-014, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
  • Handle: RePEc:rbp:wpaper:2019-014
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.bcrp.gob.pe/docs/Publicaciones/Documentos-de-Trabajo/2019/documento-de-trabajo-014-2019.pdf
    File Function: Application/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Duprey, Thibaut & Klaus, Benjamin & Peltonen, Tuomas, 2017. "Dating systemic financial stress episodes in the EU countries," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 30-56.
    2. Kim, Soyoung & Roubini, Nouriel, 2000. "Exchange rate anomalies in the industrial countries: A solution with a structural VAR approach," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 561-586, June.
    3. Lindner, Peter & Loeffler, Axel & Segalla, Esther & Valitova, Guzel & Vogel, Ursula, 2019. "International monetary policy spillovers through the bank funding channel," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 161-174.
    4. Koray Alper & Mahir Binici & Selva Demiralp & Hakan Kara & Pinar Ozlu, 2014. "Reserve Requirements, Liquidity Risk and Credit Growth," Working Papers 1424, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
    5. Drehmann, Mathias & Juselius, Mikael, 2014. "Evaluating early warning indicators of banking crises: Satisfying policy requirements," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 759-780.
    6. Christiano, Lawrence J. & Eichenbaum, Martin & Evans, Charles L., 1999. "Monetary policy shocks: What have we learned and to what end?," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.),Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 65-148, Elsevier.
    7. Fielding, David & Rewilak, Johan, 2015. "Credit booms, financial fragility and banking crises," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 136(C), pages 233-236.
    8. Roque B. Fernandez & Pablo E. Guidotti, 1996. "Regulating the banking industry in transition economies: Exploring interactions between capital and reserve requirements," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(1), pages 109-134.
    9. Axel Loeffler, 2015. "Reserve Requirements and Real Exchange Rate Misalignments in Emerging Market Economies," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 516-530, August.
    10. Yanneth Rocío Betancourt & Hernando Vargas, 2008. "Encajes bancarios y la estrategia de inflación objetivo," Borradores de Economia 533, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    11. Reinhart, Carmen M & Reinhart, Vincent R, 1999. "On the Use of Reserve Requirements in Dealing with Capital Flow Problems," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(1), pages 27-54, January.
    12. Hoffmann, Andreas & Löffler, Axel, 2014. "Low interest rate policy and the use of reserve requirements in emerging markets," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 307-314.
    13. Hamilton, James D, 1989. "A New Approach to the Economic Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series and the Business Cycle," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 357-384, March.
    14. Contreras, Alex & Gondo, Rocío & Pérez, Fernando & Oré, Erick, 2018. "Assessing the impact of credit de-dollarization measures in Peru," Working Papers 2018-009, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    15. Mathias Drehmann & Kostas Tsatsaronis, 2014. "The credit-to-GDP gap and countercyclical capital buffers: questions and answers," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, March.
    16. Marco Vega & Adrian Armas & Paul Castillo, 2014. "Inflation Targeting and Quantitative Tightening: Effects of Reserve Requirements in Peru," Economía Journal, The Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association - LACEA, vol. 0(Fall 2014), pages 133-175, June.
    17. José Bustamante & Walter Cuba & Rafael Nivin, 2019. "Determinants of credit growth and the bank-lending channel in Peru: A loan level analysis," BIS Working Papers 803, Bank for International Settlements.
    18. Axel Löffler & Gunther Schnabl & Franziska Schobert, 2010. "Inflation Targeting by Debtor Central Banks in Emerging Market Economies," CESifo Working Paper Series 3138, CESifo.
    19. Chauvet, Marcelle & Piger, Jeremy, 2008. "A Comparison of the Real-Time Performance of Business Cycle Dating Methods," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 26, pages 42-49, January.
    20. Claudio E. V. Borio & Wilhelm Fritz, 1995. "The response of short-term bank lending rates to policy rates: a cross-country perspective," BIS Working Papers 27, Bank for International Settlements.
    21. Pierre-Richard Agénor & Luiz Awazu Pereira da Silva, 2019. "Global Banking, Financial Spillovers, and Macroprudential Policy Coordination," BIS Working Papers 764, Bank for International Settlements.
    22. João Barata R. B. Barroso & Rodrigo Barbone Gonzalez & Bernardus F. Nazar Van Doornik, 2017. "Credit Supply Responses to Reserve Requirement: loan-level evidence from macroprudential policy," Working Papers Series 467, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    23. Pérez-Forero, Fernando & Vega, Marco, 2014. "The Dynamic Effects of Interest Rates and Reserve Requirements," Working Papers 2014-018, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Agénor, Pierre-Richard & Alper, Koray & Pereira da Silva, Luiz, 2018. "External shocks, financial volatility and reserve requirements in an open economy," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 23-43.
    2. Brei, Michael & Moreno, Ramon, 2019. "Reserve requirements and capital flows in Latin America," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 99(C).
    3. Koray Alper & Mahir Binici & Selva Demiralp & Hakan Kara & Pinar Özlü, 2018. "Reserve Requirements, Liquidity Risk, and Bank Lending Behavior," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 50(4), pages 817-827, June.
    4. Duprey, Thibaut & Klaus, Benjamin, 2017. "How to predict financial stress? An assessment of Markov switching models," Working Paper Series 2057, European Central Bank.
    5. Agénor, Pierre-Richard & Alper, Koray & Pereira da Silva, Luiz A., 2014. "Sudden floods, macroprudential regulation and stability in an open economy," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(PA), pages 68-100.
    6. Pérez-Forero, Fernando & Vega, Marco, 2014. "The Dynamic Effects of Interest Rates and Reserve Requirements," Working Papers 2014-018, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    7. Christian Glocker & Pascal Towbin, 2012. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Reserve Requirements," WIFO Working Papers 420, WIFO.
    8. Contreras, Alex & Gondo, Rocío & Oré, Erick & Pérez, Fernando, 2019. "Evaluando el impacto de las medidas de desdolarización del crédito en el Perú," Working Papers 2019-005, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    9. Girardin, Eric & Moussa, Zakaria, 2011. "Quantitative easing works: Lessons from the unique experience in Japan 2001â2006," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 461-495, October.
    10. Nikolay Hristov & Markus Roth, 2019. "Uncertainty Shocks and Financial Crisis Indicators," CESifo Working Paper Series 7839, CESifo.
    11. Aastveit, Knut Are & Jore, Anne Sofie & Ravazzolo, Francesco, 2016. "Identification and real-time forecasting of Norwegian business cycles," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 283-292.
    12. Kang, Wensheng & Ratti, Ronald A. & Vespignani, Joaquin L., 2016. "Chinese liquidity increases and the U.S. economy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 52(PB), pages 764-771.
    13. Theobald, Thomas, 2013. "Markov Switching with Endogenous Number of Regimes and Leading Indicators in a Real-Time Business Cycle Forecast," VfS Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79911, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    14. Sergey V. Smirnov & Nikolay V. Kondrashov & Anna V. Petronevich, 2017. "Dating Cyclical Turning Points for Russia: Formal Methods and Informal Choices," Journal of Business Cycle Research, Springer;Centre for International Research on Economic Tendency Surveys (CIRET), vol. 13(1), pages 53-73, May.
    15. Daniel F. Waggoner & Tao Zha, 2000. "A Gibbs simulator for restricted VAR models," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2000-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    16. Andrés Felipe Londoño & Jorge Andrés Tamayo & Carlos Alberto Velásquez, 2012. "Dinámica de la política monetaria e inflación objetivo en Colombia: una aproximación FAVAR," Revista ESPE - Ensayos sobre Política Económica, Banco de la Republica de Colombia, vol. 30(68), pages 14-71, June.
    17. Brüggemann, Ralf & Jentsch, Carsten & Trenkler, Carsten, 2016. "Inference in VARs with conditional heteroskedasticity of unknown form," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 191(1), pages 69-85.
    18. Calderón, César & Fuentes, J. Rodrigo, 2014. "Have business cycles changed over the last two decades? An empirical investigation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 98-123.
    19. Ang, Andrew & Piazzesi, Monika & Wei, Min, 2006. "What does the yield curve tell us about GDP growth?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 131(1-2), pages 359-403.
    20. Leeper, Eric M. & Zha, Tao, 2003. "Modest policy interventions," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(8), pages 1673-1700, November.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    reserve requirements; macroprudential policy; financial distress episodes; cost-benefit analysis;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:rbp:wpaper:2019-014. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Research Unit). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/bcrgvpe.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.