IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/koc/wpaper/1416.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Reserve Requirements, Liquidity Risk, and Credit Growth

Author

Listed:
  • Koray Alper

    (Central Bank of Turkey)

  • Mahir Binici

    (Central Bank of Turkey)

  • Selva Demiralp

    (Department of Economics, Koc University)

  • Hakan Kara

    (Central Bank of Turkey)

  • Pinar Ozlu

    (Central Bank of Turkey)

Abstract

Many central banks in emerging economies have used reserve requirements (RR) to alleviate the trade-off between financial stability and price stability in recent years. Notwithstanding their widespread use, transmission channels of RR have remained largely as a black-box. In this paper, we use bank-level data to explore the interaction between RR and bank lending behavior. Our empirical findings suggest that short-term borrowing from the central bank is not a close substitute for deposits for banks. Bank lending behavior responds significantly to reserve requirements and liquidity positions. Our analysis allows us to identify a new channel that we name as the “liquidity channel”. The channel works through a decline in bank liquidity and loan supply due to an increase in reserve requirements.

Suggested Citation

  • Koray Alper & Mahir Binici & Selva Demiralp & Hakan Kara & Pinar Ozlu, 2014. "Reserve Requirements, Liquidity Risk, and Credit Growth," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1416, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
  • Handle: RePEc:koc:wpaper:1416
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://eaf.ku.edu.tr/sites/eaf.ku.edu.tr/files/erf_wp_1416.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bun, Maurice J.G. & Harrison, Teresa D., 2014. "OLS and IV estimation of regression models including endogenous interaction terms," School of Economics Working Paper Series 2014-3, LeBow College of Business, Drexel University.
    2. Carlos Montoro & Ramon Moreno, 2011. "The use of reserve requirements as a policy instrument in Latin America," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, March.
    3. Carrera, Cesar & Vega, Hugo, 2012. "Interbank Market and Macroprudential Tools in a DSGE Model," Working Papers 2012-014, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    4. Bernanke, Ben S & Blinder, Alan S, 1992. "The Federal Funds Rate and the Channels of Monetary Transmission," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 901-921, September.
    5. Mahir Binici & Hasan Erol & A. Hakan Kara & Pinar Ozlu & Deren Unalmis, 2013. "Interest Rate Corridor : A New Macroprudential Tool?," CBT Research Notes in Economics 1320, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
    6. Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1998. "Financial Dependence and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 559-586, June.
    7. Juan Pablo Medina & Jorge Roldós, 2018. "Monetary and Macroprudential Policies to Manage Capital Flows," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 14(1), pages 201-257, January.
    8. Ben S. Bernanke & Mark Gertler, 1995. "Inside the Black Box: The Credit Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 27-48, Fall.
    9. Fama, Eugene F., 1980. "Banking in the theory of finance," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 39-57, January.
    10. Friedman, Benjamin M. & Kuttner, Kenneth N., 2010. "Implementation of Monetary Policy: How Do Central Banks Set Interest Rates?," Handbook of Monetary Economics, in: Benjamin M. Friedman & Michael Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 24, pages 1345-1438, Elsevier.
    11. Philippe Aghion & Peter Howitt & David Mayer-Foulkes, 2005. "The Effect of Financial Development on Convergence: Theory and Evidence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(1), pages 173-222.
    12. Hernando Vargas Herrera & Yanneth R Betancourt & Carlos Varela & Norberto Rodriguez, 2011. "Effects of reserve requirements in an inflation targeting regime: the case of Colombia," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), The global crisis and financial intermediation in emerging market economies, volume 54, pages 133-169, Bank for International Settlements.
    13. A. Kara, 2013. "Monetary Policy after the Global Crisis," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 41(1), pages 51-74, March.
    14. Reinhart, Carmen M & Reinhart, Vincent R, 1999. "On the Use of Reserve Requirements in Dealing with Capital Flow Problems," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(1), pages 27-54, January.
    15. Christian Glocker & Pascal Towbin, 2012. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Reserve Requirements," WIFO Working Papers 420, WIFO.
    16. Koray Alper & Defne Mutluer Kurul & Ramazan Karasahin, 2011. "Arzin Merkezine Seyahat : Bankacilarla Yapilan Gorusmelerden Elde Edilen Bilgilerle Turk Bankacilik Sektorunun Davranisi," Working Papers 1124, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
    17. Kishan, Ruby P & Opiela, Timothy P, 2000. "Bank Size, Bank Capital, and the Bank Lending Channel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(1), pages 121-141, February.
    18. Xavier Freixas & Jean-Charles Rochet, 2008. "Microeconomics of Banking, 2nd Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 0262062704, December.
    19. Blaise Gadanecz & Aaron Mehrotra & Madhusudan S Mohanty, 2014. "Foreign exchange intervention and the banking system balance sheet in emerging market economies," BIS Working Papers 445, Bank for International Settlements.
    20. Cornett, Marcia Millon & McNutt, Jamie John & Strahan, Philip E. & Tehranian, Hassan, 2011. "Liquidity risk management and credit supply in the financial crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(2), pages 297-312, August.
    21. Oliver de Groot, 2014. "The Risk Channel of Monetary Policy," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 10(2), pages 115-160, June.
    22. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    23. Di Giorgio, Giorgio, 1999. "Financial development and reserve requirements," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(7), pages 1031-1041, July.
    24. Boot, Arnoud W. A., 2000. "Relationship Banking: What Do We Know?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-25, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Hakan Kara, 2016. "A brief assessment of Turkey's macroprudential policy approach : 2011–2015," Central Bank Review, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, vol. 16(3), pages 85-92.
    2. Małgorzata Olszak & Sylwia Roszkowska & Iwona Kowalska, 2018. "The Joint Effect Of Borrower Targeted Macroprudential Instruments And Capital Regulations On Procyclicality Of Loan-Loss Provisions," Copernican Journal of Finance & Accounting, Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, vol. 7(3), pages 29-53.
    3. Agénor, Pierre-Richard & Alper, Koray & Pereira da Silva, Luiz, 2018. "External shocks, financial volatility and reserve requirements in an open economy," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 23-43.
    4. Agénor, Pierre-Richard & Alper, Koray & Pereira da Silva, Luiz A., 2014. "Sudden floods, macroprudential regulation and stability in an open economy," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(PA), pages 68-100.
    5. Brei, Michael & Moreno, Ramon, 2019. "Reserve requirements and capital flows in Latin America," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 99(C).
    6. Cantú, Carlos & Gondo, Rocio & Martínez, Berenice, 2019. "Reserve requirements as a financial stability instrument," Working Papers 2019-014, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    7. Koray Alper & Mahir Binici & Selva Demiralp & Hakan Kara & Pinar Özlü, 2018. "Reserve Requirements, Liquidity Risk, and Bank Lending Behavior," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 50(4), pages 817-827, June.
    8. Hakan Kara, 2016. "Turkey's experience with macroprudential policy," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Macroprudential policy, volume 86, pages 123-139, Bank for International Settlements.
    9. Pérez-Forero, Fernando & Vega, Marco, 2014. "The Dynamic Effects of Interest Rates and Reserve Requirements," Working Papers 2014-018, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    10. Nazim Kadri Ekinci, 2018. "Credit, Capital Flows and Monetary Policy: A Post-Keynesian Analysis," World Journal of Applied Economics, WERI-World Economic Research Institute, vol. 4(2), pages 55-74, December.
    11. Akturk, Halit & Gocen, Hasan & Duran, Suleyman, 2015. "Money Multiplier under Reserve Option Mechanism," MPRA Paper 64803, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Koray Alper & Mahir Binici & Selva Demiralp & Hakan Kara & Pinar Özlü, 2018. "Reserve Requirements, Liquidity Risk, and Bank Lending Behavior," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 50(4), pages 817-827, June.
    2. Brei, Michael & Moreno, Ramon, 2019. "Reserve requirements and capital flows in Latin America," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 99(C).
    3. Ferri, Giovanni & Kalmi, Panu & Kerola, Eeva, 2014. "Does bank ownership affect lending behavior? Evidence from the Euro area," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 194-209.
    4. Delis, Manthos & Hong, Sizhe & Paltalidis, Nikos & Philip, Dennis, 2020. "Forward Guidance and Corporate Lending," MPRA Paper 98159, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Fungáčová, Zuzana & Nuutilainen, Riikka & Weill, Laurent, 2016. "Reserve requirements and the bank lending channel in China," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 37-50.
    6. D'Avino, Carmela, 2018. "Quantitative easing, global banks and the international bank lending channel," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 234-246.
    7. Sanfilippo-Azofra, Sergio & Torre-Olmo, Begoña & Cantero-Saiz, María & López-Gutiérrez, Carlos, 2018. "Financial development and the bank lending channel in developing countries," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 215-234.
    8. Peydró, José-Luis & Polo, Andrea & Sette, Enrico, 2021. "Monetary policy at work: Security and credit application registers evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 140(3), pages 789-814.
    9. José Gómez-González & Fernando Grosz, 2007. "Evidence of a Bank Lending Channel for Argentina and Colombia," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 44(129), pages 109-126.
    10. Acharya, Viral V. & Imbierowicz, Björn & Steffen, Sascha & Teichmann, Daniel, 2020. "Does the lack of financial stability impair the transmission of monetary policy?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 138(2), pages 342-365.
    11. Jorge, José, 2009. "Why do bank loans react with a delay to shifts in interest rates? A bank capital explanation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 799-806, September.
    12. Burgstaller Johann, 2010. "Bank Lending and Monetary Policy Transmission in Austria," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 230(2), pages 163-185, April.
    13. Kandrac, John, 2012. "Monetary policy and bank lending to small firms," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 741-748.
    14. Filippo Ippolito & Ali K. Ozdagli & Ander Pérez Orive, 2013. "Is bank debt special for the transmission of monetary policy? Evidence from the stock market," Economics Working Papers 1384, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
    15. Agénor, Pierre-Richard & Alper, Koray & Pereira da Silva, Luiz, 2018. "External shocks, financial volatility and reserve requirements in an open economy," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 23-43.
    16. Jiménez, Gabriel & Ongena, Steven & Peydró, José-Luis & Saurina, Jesús, 2012. "Credit Supply and Monetary Policy: Identifying the Bank Balance-Sheet Channel with Loan Applications," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 2301-2326.
    17. Christian Glocker & Pascal Towbin, 2012. "Reserve Requirements for Price and Financial Stability: When Are They Effective?," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 8(1), pages 65-114, March.
    18. Carrera, César, 2012. "Políticas de Encajes y Modelos Económicos," Working Papers 2012-006, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    19. Cihan Yalcin & Spiros Bougheas & Paul Mizen, 2004. "The Impact of Firm-Specific Characteristics on the Response to Monetary Policy Actions," Central Bank Review, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, vol. 4(1), pages 1-30.
    20. Ramos-Tallada, Julio, 2015. "Bank risks, monetary shocks and the credit channel in Brazil: Identification and evidence from panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 135-161.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Monetary transmission mechanism; liquidity risk; bank lending channel; Turkey.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:koc:wpaper:1416. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dekoctr.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sumru Oz (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dekoctr.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.