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Foreign exchange intervention and the banking system balance sheet in emerging market economies

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  • Blaise Gadanecz
  • Aaron Mehrotra
  • Madhusudan S Mohanty

Abstract

Large-scale forex intervention in emerging market economies (EMEs) aimed at resisting currency appreciation has major implications for the composition of banking system balance sheets. The domestic monetary consequences depend on the nature of central bank liabilities that are the counterpart of forex reserves. Even if the immediate change in bank reserves due to FX intervention is offset by the sale of securities, bank lending may still be stimulated, running counter to the aims of the monetary authority. In this paper, we empirically investigate the impact of banks’ holdings of liquid government securities, generated by such intervention, on bank credit in a panel of EMEs. We find that, for well capitalised banking systems, holdings of government and central bank paper over time lead to an expansion in their credit to the private sector. This result is confirmed at both country and bank level. The balance sheet effects of large-scale FX intervention therefore require close attention.

Suggested Citation

  • Blaise Gadanecz & Aaron Mehrotra & Madhusudan S Mohanty, 2014. "Foreign exchange intervention and the banking system balance sheet in emerging market economies," BIS Working Papers 445, Bank for International Settlements.
  • Handle: RePEc:bis:biswps:445
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Clifford Paul Hallwood, 2021. "Correcting US payments imbalances: Taxing foreign holders of its treasury securities is better than import tariffs," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(8), pages 2228-2237, August.
    2. Pal, Sumantra, 2018. "How to intervene in foreign exchange market without buying/selling dollars?," EconStor Preprints 181880, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
    3. Ponomarenko, Alexey, 2019. "Do sterilized foreign exchange interventions create money?," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1-16.
    4. Mercado, Rogelio, 2020. "Are capital inflows expansionary or contractionary in the Philippines?," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(C).
    5. Boris Hofmann & Hyun Song Shin & Mauricio Villamizar-Villegas, 2019. "FX intervention and domestic credit: Evidence from high-frequency micro data," BIS Working Papers 774, Bank for International Settlements.
    6. Соломія Бричка & Денис Клиновський & Дмитро Круковець & Артем Огарков, 2019. "Мета-аналіз: ефект fx-інтервенцій на валютний курс," Suchasni ekonomichni doslidzhennja, Kyiv School of Economics, vol. 2(1), pages 24-47.
    7. Filardo, Andrew & Genberg, Hans & Hofmann, Boris, 2016. "Monetary analysis and the global financial cycle: An Asian central bank perspective," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 1-16.
    8. Philip Turner, 2014. "The exit from non-conventional monetary policy: what challenges?," BIS Working Papers 448, Bank for International Settlements.
    9. Ken Kuttner & James Yetman, 2016. "A comparison of liquidity management tools in seven Asian economies," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Expanding the boundaries of monetary policy in Asia and the Pacific, volume 88, pages 33-58, Bank for International Settlements.
    10. Shalva Mkhatrishvili & Giorgi Tsutskiridze & Lasha Arevadze, 2020. "Sterilized FX interventions may not be so sterilized," NBG Working Papers 02/2020, National Bank of Georgia.
    11. Solomiia Brychka & Denys Klynovskyi & Dmytro Krukovets & Artem Oharkov, 2019. "Meta-Analysis: Meta-Analysis: Effect of FX interventions on the exchange rate," Modern Economic Studies, Kyiv School of Economics, vol. 2(1), pages 24-44.
    12. Ken Miyajima & Madhusudan Mohanty & James Yetman, 2014. "Spillovers of US unconventional monetary policy to Asia: the role of long-term interest rates," BIS Working Papers 478, Bank for International Settlements.
    13. Koray Alper & Mahir Binici & Selva Demiralp & Hakan Kara & Pinar Ozlu, 2014. "Reserve Requirements, Liquidity Risk and Credit Growth," Working Papers 1424, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
    14. Ramis Khabibullin & Alexey Ponomarenko & Sergei Seleznev, 2018. "Forecasting the implications of foreign exchange reserve accumulation with an agent-based model," Bank of Russia Working Paper Series wps37, Bank of Russia.
    15. Torija-Zane, Edgardo, 2015. "Bancos centrales “periféricos”: el caso de América Latina," Libros de la CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), number 39989.
    16. Philip Turner, 2016. "External shocks, the exchange rate and macroprudential policy," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Macroprudential policy, volume 86, pages 57-62, Bank for International Settlements.

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    Keywords

    bank lending; sterilised intervention; foreign exchange reserves; central bank securities; emerging market economies;
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