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Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation in Nigeria: Beyond the Environmental Kuznets Curve

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  • Akpan, Usenobong F.
  • Chuku, Agbai

Abstract

The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is a presumption that environmental degradation follows an inverted U-shaped trajectory in relation to economic growth. The thorny question of whether economic growth could provide a cure to environmental degradation has sparked off a large body of empirical studies in the last decade. The conclusions have been mixed. This study contributes to the debate on the existence and policy relevance of the EKC for Nigeria by applying autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) framework to annual time series data from 1960 to 2008. The traditional EKC model is extended by including (in addition to the level, square and cubed values of the income variable), trade openness as well as the shares of manufacturing, agriculture and service sectors in Nigeria’s GDP. Using Co2 emissions per capita to proxy environmental degradation, our findings do not support the existence of the EKC hypothesis. Rather our results show that Nigeria’s situation when confronted with data is exemplified by an N-shaped relationship with a turning point at $77.27 that lies below the data set used for the study. Based on these findings, the paper posit that the hypothesized EKC serves as a dangerous policy guide to solving environmental problems in Nigeria. The conclusion is that to ensure sustainability, there exist an urgent need to look beyond the EKC by adopting courageous policy measures of environmental preservation in Nigeria irrespective of the country’s level of income.

Suggested Citation

  • Akpan, Usenobong F. & Chuku, Agbai, 2011. "Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation in Nigeria: Beyond the Environmental Kuznets Curve," MPRA Paper 31241, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:31241
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31241/1/MPRA_paper_31241.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Isola, W.A. & Mesagan, E.P., 2014. "Impact of Oil Production on Human Condition in Nigeria," MPRA Paper 67784, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Dec 2014.
    2. Cowan, Wendy N. & Chang, Tsangyao & Inglesi-Lotz, Roula & Gupta, Rangan, 2014. "The nexus of electricity consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in the BRICS countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 359-368.
    3. Godwin Effiong Akpan & Usenobong Friday Akpan, 2012. "Electricity Consumption, Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth in Nigeria," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 2(4), pages 292-306.
    4. F. Akpan, Usenobong & E. Abang, Dominic, 2014. "Environmental Quality and Economic Growth: A Panel Analysis of the "U" in Kuznets," MPRA Paper 54461, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. repec:eco:journ2:2018-01-13 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Environmental Degradation; ARDL; Environmental Kuznets Curve; Nigeria;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • O43 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Institutions and Growth
    • Q24 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Land

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