Electricity Consumption, Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth in Nigeria
This paper applies a Multivariate Vector Error Correction (VECM) framework to examine the long run and causal relationship between electricity consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Nigeria. Using annual time series data for 1970 to 2008, findings show that in the long run, economic growth is associated with increase carbon emissions, while an increase in electricity consumption leads to an increase in carbon emissions. These imply that Nigeria’s growth process is pollution intensive, while the negative relationship between electricity consumption (or positive relationship between electricity consumption) and emissions in Nigeria is a clear indication that electricity consumption in the country has intensified carbon emissions. No support was obtained for the hypothesized environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Granger-causality results confirm a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to carbon emissions, indicating that carbon emissions reduction policies could be pursued without reducing economic growth in Nigeria. No causality was found between electricity and growth, in either way, which further lends credence to the crisis in the Nigerian electricity sector. Overall, the paper submits that efficient planning and increased investment in electricity infrastructure development may be the crucial missing variable in the obtained neutrality hypothesis between electricity and growth.
Volume (Year): 2 (2012)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.econjournals.com|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ang, James B., 2007. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 4772-4778, October.
- Halicioglu, Ferda, 2009.
"An econometric study of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade in Turkey,"
Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 1156-1164, March.
- Halicioglu, Ferda, 2008. "An econometric study of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade in Turkey," MPRA Paper 11457, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Ozturk, Ilhan & Acaravci, Ali, 2010. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(9), pages 3220-3225, December.
- Shiu, Alice & Lam, Pun-Lee, 2004. "Electricity consumption and economic growth in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 47-54, January.
- Janesh Sami, 2011. "Multivariate Cointegration and Causality between Exports, Electricity Consumption and Real Income per Capita: Recent Evidence from Japan," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 1(3), pages 59-68, November.
- P Ekins, 1997. "The Kuznets Curve for the Environment and Economic Growth: Examining the Evidence," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 29(5), pages 805-830, May.
- Payne, James E., 2009. "On the dynamics of energy consumption and output in the US," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(4), pages 575-577, April.
- Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2009. "CO2 emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3282-3286, August.
- Yang, Hao-Yen, 2000. "A note on the causal relationship between energy and GDP in Taiwan," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 309-317, June.
- Stern, David I., 2004. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1419-1439, August.
- David I. Stern, 2003. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0302, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
- Mehrara, Mohsen, 2007. "Energy consumption and economic growth: The case of oil exporting countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 2939-2945, May.
- Tsangyao Chang & Wenshwo Fang & Li-Fang Wen, 2001. "Energy consumption, employment, output, and temporal causality: evidence from Taiwan based on cointegration and error-correction modelling techniques," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(8), pages 1045-1056.
- Peter Romilly & Haiyan Song & Xiaming Liu, 2001. "Car ownership and use in Britain: a comparison of the empirical results of alternative cointegration estimation methods and forecasts," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(14), pages 1803-1818.
- Jamil, Faisal & Ahmad, Eatzaz, 2010. "The relationship between electricity consumption, electricity prices and GDP in Pakistan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 6016-6025, October.
- He, Jie & Richard, Patrick, 2010. "Environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 in Canada," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(5), pages 1083-1093, March.
- Jie He & Patrick Richard, 2009. "Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 in Canada," Cahiers de recherche 09-13, Departement d'Economique de l'École de gestion à l'Université de Sherbrooke.
- Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
- Esso, Loesse Jacques, 2010. "Threshold cointegration and causality relationship between energy use and growth in seven African countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1383-1391, November.
- Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2011. "A dynamic panel study of economic development and the electricity consumption-growth nexus," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 770-781, September.
- Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Smyth, Russell, 2005. "Electricity consumption, employment and real income in Australia evidence from multivariate Granger causality tests," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1109-1116, June.
- Jumbe, Charles B. L., 2004. "Cointegration and causality between electricity consumption and GDP: empirical evidence from Malawi," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 61-68, January.
- Yoo, Seung-Hoon & Kim, Yeonbae, 2006. "Electricity generation and economic growth in Indonesia," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(14), pages 2890-2899.
- Tang, Chor Foon, 2008. "A re-examination of the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 3067-3075, August.
- Akpan, Usenobong F. & Chuku, Agbai, 2011. "Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation in Nigeria: Beyond the Environmental Kuznets Curve," MPRA Paper 31241, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
- Menyah, Kojo & Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2010. "Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and economic growth in South Africa," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1374-1382, November.
- Yoo, Seung-Hoon, 2005. "Electricity consumption and economic growth: evidence from Korea," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(12), pages 1627-1632, August.
- Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2009. "Electricity consumption and economic growth in South Africa: A trivariate causality test," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 635-640, September.
- Dinda, Soumyananda, 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 431-455, August.
- AkbostancI, Elif & Türüt-AsIk, Serap & Tunç, G. Ipek, 2009. "The relationship between income and environment in Turkey: Is there an environmental Kuznets curve?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 861-867, March.
- Akinlo, A.E., 2009. "Electricity consumption and economic growth in Nigeria: Evidence from cointegration and co-feature analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 681-693, September.
- Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2004. "Disaggregated industrial energy consumption and GDP: the case of Shanghai, 1952-1999," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 69-75, January.
- Acaravci, Ali & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2010. "Electricity consumption-growth nexus: Evidence from panel data for transition countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 604-608, May.
- Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1995. "Neoclassical Growth, the J Curve for Abatement, and the Inverted U Curve for Pollution," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 162-168, September. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eco:journ2:2012-04-8. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ilhan Ozturk)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.