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Environmental Quality and Economic Growth: A Panel Analysis of the "U" in Kuznets

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  • F. Akpan, Usenobong
  • E. Abang, Dominic

Abstract

The primary motivation behind this study was to search for evidence of the link between environmental quality and economic growth so as to answer the relevant question of whether economic growth alone could serve as a long-run solution to environmental damage as implied by EKC hypothesis. Here we analyze the relationship using a panel of 47 countries over the period 1970 -2008. Using Random-effect estimation and two-stage least square, our results leads to the following conclusions: relying on a quadratic model can easily mislead researchers to ratify the existence of EKC; the EKC hypothesis ceased to hold whenever an alternative functional form (cubic) is employed. At best, the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality is shown to be typified by an N-shaped curve. The paper maintained that simply waiting for an automatic arrival of a delinking point for environmental damage given long-run growth will not be a feasible solution to environmental quality. A number of feasible policy menu and critical questions to guide selection of the best instrument capable of bringing about a downturn in environmental damage have been suggested in the paper.

Suggested Citation

  • F. Akpan, Usenobong & E. Abang, Dominic, 2014. "Environmental Quality and Economic Growth: A Panel Analysis of the "U" in Kuznets," MPRA Paper 54461, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:54461
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/54461/1/MPRA_paper_54461.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
    2. He, Jie & Richard, Patrick, 2010. "Environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 in Canada," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(5), pages 1083-1093, March.
    3. Agras, Jean & Chapman, Duane, 1999. "A dynamic approach to the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 267-277, February.
    4. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    5. Heil, Mark T. & Selden, Thomas M., 2001. "Carbon emissions and economic development: future trajectories based on historical experience," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 6(01), pages 63-83, February.
    6. Cole, Matthew A., 2004. "US environmental load displacement: examining consumption, regulations and the role of NAFTA," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(4), pages 439-450, April.
    7. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. " A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-652, Special I.
    8. Caviglia-Harris, Jill L. & Chambers, Dustin & Kahn, James R., 2009. "Taking the "U" out of Kuznets: A comprehensive analysis of the EKC and environmental degradation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(4), pages 1149-1159, February.
    9. Choi, In, 2001. "Unit root tests for panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 249-272, April.
    10. Godwin Effiong Akpan & Usenobong Friday Akpan, 2012. "Electricity Consumption, Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth in Nigeria," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 2(4), pages 292-306.
    11. Friedl, Birgit & Getzner, Michael, 2003. "Determinants of CO2 emissions in a small open economy," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 133-148, April.
    12. Akpan, Usenobong F. & Chuku, Agbai, 2011. "Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation in Nigeria: Beyond the Environmental Kuznets Curve," MPRA Paper 31241, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Martinez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada & Bengochea-Morancho, Aurelia, 2004. "Pooled mean group estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve for CO2," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 121-126, January.
    14. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
    15. Breitung, Jorg, 2002. "Nonparametric tests for unit roots and cointegration," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 343-363, June.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Albino Prada-Blanco & Patricio Sanchez-Fernandez, 2017. "Empirical Analysis of the Transformation of Economic Growth into Social Development at an International Level," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 130(3), pages 983-1003, February.
    2. Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid, 2016. "Revisiting the concept of environmental Kuznets curve in period of energy disaster and deteriorating income: Empirical evidence from Japan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 274-284.
    3. Paunić, Alida, 2016. "Brazil, Preservation of Forest and Biodiversity," MPRA Paper 71462, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Prada, Albino & Sanchez-Fernandez, Patricio, 2015. "Análisis del acoplamiento entre la riqueza y el desarrollo socioeconómico de las naciones
      [Analysis of the mismatch between wealth and socio-economic development of nations]
      ," MPRA Paper 61067, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Economic growth; EKC hypothesis; Environmental quality; delinking;

    JEL classification:

    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C26 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q57 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Ecological Economics

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