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How You Export Matters: Export Mode, Learning and Productivity in China

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  • Xue Bai
  • Kala Krishna
  • Hong Ma

Abstract

This paper shows that how firms export (directly or indirectly via intermediaries) matters. We develop and estimate a dynamic discrete choice model that allows learning-by-exporting on the cost and demand side as well as sunk/fixed costs to differ by export mode. We find that demand and productivity evolve more favorably under direct exporting, though the fixed/sunk costs of this option are higher. Our results suggest that had China not liberalized its direct trading rights when it joined the WTO, its exports and export participation would have been 30 and 37 percent lower respectively.

Suggested Citation

  • Xue Bai & Kala Krishna & Hong Ma, 2015. "How You Export Matters: Export Mode, Learning and Productivity in China," NBER Working Papers 21164, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:21164 Note: ITI
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Wang, Jian & Wang, Xiao, 2015. "Benefits of foreign ownership: Evidence from foreign direct investment in China," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 325-338.
    2. Feng, Ling & Li, Zhiyuan & Swenson, Deborah L., 2016. "The connection between imported intermediate inputs and exports: Evidence from Chinese firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 86-101.
    3. Cheng, Dong & Hu, Zhongzhong & Tan, Yong, 2017. "Time-Varying Impacts of Financial Credits on Firm Exports: Evidence from Trade Deregulation in China," MPRA Paper 80657, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Manova, Kalina & Yu, Zhihong, 2016. "How firms export: Processing vs. ordinary trade with financial frictions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 120-137.
    5. Hans-Jörg Schmerer & Luhang Wang, 2014. "Firm Performance and Trade with Low-Income Countries: Evidence from China," CESifo Working Paper Series 4934, CESifo Group Munich.
    6. Justin R. Pierce & Peter K. Schott, 2016. "The Surprisingly Swift Decline of US Manufacturing Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 106(7), pages 1632-1662, July.
    7. Joachim Wagner, 2016. "A survey of empirical studies using transaction level data on exports and imports," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 152(1), pages 215-225, February.
    8. Justin R. Pierce & Peter K. Schott, 2017. "Investment Responses to Trade Liberalization : Evidence from U.S. Industries and Establishments," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2017-120, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    9. Brandt, Loren & Morrow, Peter M., 2017. "Tariffs and the organization of trade in China," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 85-103.
    10. David H. Autor & David Dorn & Gordon H. Hanson, 2016. "The China Shock: Learning from Labor-Market Adjustment to Large Changes in Trade," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 8(1), pages 205-240, October.
    11. Emmanuel Dhyne & Stela Rubínová, 2016. "The supplier network of exporters : Connecting the dots," Working Paper Research 296, National Bank of Belgium.
    12. Cheng, Dong & Tan, Yong & Yu, Jian, 2017. "Credit Rationing and Firm Exports: Micro Evidence from SMEs in China," MPRA Paper 81914, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. repec:spr:weltar:v:153:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s10290-017-0284-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Amiti, Mary & Dai, Mi & Feenstra, Robert C. & Romalis, John, 2017. "How did China’s WTO entry benefit U.S. consumers?," Staff Reports 817, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    15. Alok Johri & Terry Yip, 2017. "Financial Shocks,Supply-chain Relationships and the Great Trade Collapse," Department of Economics Working Papers 2017-11, McMaster University.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • L1 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance

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