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Lessons from Quantile Panel Estimation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve

Author

Listed:
  • Carlos A. Flores

    () (Department of Economics, University of Miami)

  • Alfonso Flores-Lagunes

    () (Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida and IZA, Bonn, Germany)

  • Dimitrios Kapetanakis

    () (Food and Resource Economics Department, Universty of Florida)

Abstract

The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesizes that the income-pollution rela- tionship has an inverted U shape: pollution increases with income up to a turning point beyond which it decreases. The empirical literature has concentrated on estimation of this relationship at the mean employing longitudinal data, with the typical ?nding supporting the inverted U shape. Conditional mean estimation, however, can mask heterogeneities present at higher and/or lower quantiles of the emissions?distribution, in addition to being more sensitive to the presence of outliers. We apply methods for conditional-quantile panel ?xed e¤ects models to the estimation of the income-pollution relationship on U.S. state-level data on NOx (nitrogen oxide) and SO2 (sulfur dioxide) pollutants over the period 1929- 1994. Our results indicate that conditional mean methods provide too optimistic estimates about emissions reduction of NOx, as conditional-quantile methods suggest that the turning point of the relationship occurs at higher values of income; while the opposite is found for SO2. Another important lesson drawn is that the income-pollution relationship is sensitive to the presence of outliers in the data.

Suggested Citation

  • Carlos A. Flores & Alfonso Flores-Lagunes & Dimitrios Kapetanakis, 2009. "Lessons from Quantile Panel Estimation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Working Papers 2010-4, University of Miami, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:mia:wpaper:2010-4
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    File URL: http://moya.bus.miami.edu/~cflores/research_papers/FKF_082009.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Apergis, Nicholas & Christou, Christina & Gupta, Rangan, 2017. "Are there Environmental Kuznets Curves for US state-level CO2 emissions?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 551-558.
    2. Javier Alejo, 2013. "Relación de Kuznets en América Latina. Explorando más allá de la media condicional," Económica, Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, vol. 59, pages 3-55, January-D.
    3. Zhu, Huiming & Duan, Lijun & Guo, Yawei & Yu, Keming, 2016. "The effects of FDI, economic growth and energy consumption on carbon emissions in ASEAN-5: Evidence from panel quantile regression," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 237-248.
    4. Pei-Ing Wu & Je-Liang Liou & Hung-Yi Chang, 2015. "Alternative exploration of EKC for $$\hbox {CO}_{2}$$ CO 2 emissions: inclusion of meta-technical ratio in quantile regression model," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 49(1), pages 57-73, January.
    5. Hübler, Michael, 2017. "The inequality-emissions nexus in the context of trade and development: A quantile regression approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 134(C), pages 174-185.
    6. Al-Mulali, Usama & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2016. "The investigation of environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in the advanced economies: The role of energy prices," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 1622-1631.
    7. Apergis, Nicholas, 2016. "Environmental Kuznets curves: New evidence on both panel and country-level CO2 emissions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 263-271.
    8. Maralgua Och, 2017. "Empirical Investigation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis for Nitrous Oxide Emissions for Mongolia," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 7(1), pages 117-128.
    9. You, Wan-Hai & Zhu, Hui-Ming & Yu, Keming & Peng, Cheng, 2015. "Democracy, Financial Openness, and Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Heterogeneity Across Existing Emission Levels," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 189-207.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Environmental Kuznets Curve; Panel Quantile Estimation; Income and the Environment;

    JEL classification:

    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models

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