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Lessons from Quantile Panel Estimation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve

  • Carlos A. Flores

    ()

    (Department of Economics, University of Miami)

  • Alfonso Flores-Lagunes

    ()

    (Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida and IZA, Bonn, Germany)

  • Dimitrios Kapetanakis

    ()

    (Food and Resource Economics Department, Universty of Florida)

The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesizes that the income-pollution rela- tionship has an inverted U shape: pollution increases with income up to a turning point beyond which it decreases. The empirical literature has concentrated on estimation of this relationship at the mean employing longitudinal data, with the typical ?nding supporting the inverted U shape. Conditional mean estimation, however, can mask heterogeneities present at higher and/or lower quantiles of the emissions?distribution, in addition to being more sensitive to the presence of outliers. We apply methods for conditional-quantile panel ?xed e¤ects models to the estimation of the income-pollution relationship on U.S. state-level data on NOx (nitrogen oxide) and SO2 (sulfur dioxide) pollutants over the period 1929- 1994. Our results indicate that conditional mean methods provide too optimistic estimates about emissions reduction of NOx, as conditional-quantile methods suggest that the turning point of the relationship occurs at higher values of income; while the opposite is found for SO2. Another important lesson drawn is that the income-pollution relationship is sensitive to the presence of outliers in the data.

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Paper provided by University of Miami, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 2010-4.

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Length: 18 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2009
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published
Handle: RePEc:mia:wpaper:2010-4
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  2. Komen, Marinus H.C. & Gerking, Shelby & Folmer, Henk, 1997. "Income and environmental R D: empirical evidence from OECD countries," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 505-515, November.
  3. Daniel L. Millimet & John A. List & Thanasis Stengos, 2003. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Real Progress or Misspecified Models?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 1038-1047, November.
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  16. Flores, Nicholas E. & Carson, Richard T., 1995. "The Relationship Between the Income Elasticities of Demand and Willingness to Pay," 1995 Conference (39th), February 14-16, 1995, Perth, Australia 148795, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
  17. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1994. "Economic Growth and the Environment," NBER Working Papers 4634, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Hausman, Jerry, 2015. "Specification tests in econometrics," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 38(2), pages 112-134.
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