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Sectors under scrutiny � Evaluation of indicators to assess the risk of carbon leakage in the UK and Germany

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  • Misato Sato
  • Karsten Neuhoff
  • Verena Graichen
  • Katja Schumacher
  • Felix Matthes

Abstract

One of the central debates surrounding the design of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme is the approach to addressing carbon leakage. Correctly identifying the conomic activities exposed to the risk of carbon leakage represents the first step in mitigating the risk effectively. Several metrics and methods have been proposed to separate sectors which are at risk from those which are not. This study sets out a simple analytical framework and several indicators to measure the relative potential exposure of manufacturing sectors to emissions leakage. These indicators are applied to detailed UK and German data. This illustrates that, when applied to high quality data, simple metrics can be used to identify carbon-intensive-trade-exposed sectors. We find that, of the 159 industrial sub-sectors examined, CO2 cost impacts are focused on a few industrial sub-sectors. The 25 highest ranking sub-sectors collectively account for around 13% of total UK CO2 emissions (from both direct and indirect energy use), 1% of total UK GDP, and 0.5% of total UK employment. For Germany, the equivalent figures are 22% of total CO2 emissions, 2% of GDP and 1% of employment. That the vulnerable sectors account for small shares of emission, value-added and employment does not mean that their potential emissions leakage can be ignored. Rather, the focus on specific sub-sectors provides possibilities for tailored and technical solutions where leakage is a valid concern, thus improving robust economic performance and the credibility of the EU ETS as an instrument for delivering emissions reductions.

Suggested Citation

  • Misato Sato & Karsten Neuhoff & Verena Graichen & Katja Schumacher & Felix Matthes, 2013. "Sectors under scrutiny � Evaluation of indicators to assess the risk of carbon leakage in the UK and Germany," GRI Working Papers 113, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment.
  • Handle: RePEc:lsg:lsgwps:wp113
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    Cited by:

    1. Antoine Dechezleprêtre & Misato Sato, 2017. "The Impacts of Environmental Regulations on Competitiveness," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 11(2), pages 183-206.
    2. Christoph Böhringer & Knut Einar Rosendahl & Halvor Storrøsten, 2021. "Smart hedging against carbon leakage [An overview of the GTAP 9 data base]," Economic Policy, CEPR, CESifo, Sciences Po;CES;MSH, vol. 36(107), pages 439-484.
    3. Sato, Misato & Singer, Gregor & Dussaux, Damien & Lovo, Stefania, 2019. "International and sectoral variation in industrial energy prices 1995–2015," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 235-258.
    4. Böhringer, Christoph & Rosendahl, Knut Einar & Storrøsten, Halvor Briseid, 2017. "Robust policies to mitigate carbon leakage," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 35-46.
    5. Kevin R. Kaushal & Knut Einar Rosendahl, 2020. "Taxing Consumption to Mitigate Carbon Leakage," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 75(1), pages 151-181, January.
    6. Ajayi, V. & Reiner, D., 2018. "European Industrial Energy Intensity: The Role of Innovation 1995-2009," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 1835, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    7. Quentin Perrier & Philippe Quirion, 2017. "La transition énergétique est-elle favorable aux branches à fort contenu en emploi ? Une analyse input-output pour la France," Revue d'économie politique, Dalloz, vol. 127(5), pages 851-887.
    8. Christoph Böhringer & Knut Einar Rosendahl & Halvor Briseid Storrøsten, 2015. "Mitigating carbon leakage: Combining output-based rebating with a consumption tax," ZenTra Working Papers in Transnational Studies 54 / 2015, ZenTra - Center for Transnational Studies.
    9. Sakai, Marco & Barrett, John, 2016. "Border carbon adjustments: Addressing emissions embodied in trade," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 102-110.
    10. Susanne Droege & Carolyn Fischer, 2020. "Pricing Carbon at the Border: Key Questions for the EU," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 18(01), pages 30-34, April.

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