Differences in Employment Outcomes for College Town Stayers and Leavers
Areas surrounding colleges and universities are often able to build their local stock of human capital by retaining recent graduates in the area after they finish their education. This paper classifies 41 U.S. metropolitan areas as "college towns" and investigates differences in employment outcomes between college graduates who stay in the college town where they obtained their degree and college graduates who leave after completing their degree. We find that college town stayers experience less favorable employment outcomes along multiple dimensions. On average, stayers earn lower annual and hourly wages and work in less educated occupations.
|Date of creation:||Jul 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published in: IZA Journal of Migration, 2012, 1:11|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ronald L. Whisler & Brigitte S. Waldorf & Gordon F. Mulligan & David A. Plane, 2008. "Quality of Life and the Migration of the College-Educated: A Life-Course Approach," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(1), pages 58-94.
- Jaison R. Abel & Todd M. Gabe, 2008.
"Human capital and economic activity in urban America,"
332, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Jaison Abel & Todd Gabe, 2011. "Human Capital and Economic Activity in Urban America," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(8), pages 1079-1090.
- Roger Axelsson & Olle Westerlund, 1998. "A panel study of migration, self-selection and household real income," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 11(1), pages 113-126.
- Richard Florida & Charlotta Mellander & Kevin Stolarick, 2008.
"Inside the black box of regional development: human capital, the creative class and tolerance,"
Journal of Economic Geography,
Oxford University Press, vol. 8(5), pages 615-649, September.
- Florida, Richard & Mellander, Charlotta & Stolarick, Kevin, 2007. "Inside the Black Box of Regional Development - human capital, the creative class and tolerance," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 88, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
- Winters, John V, 2010.
"Human Capital Externalities and Employment Differences across Metropolitan Areas of the U.S,"
22434, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- John V. Winters, 2013. "Human capital externalities and employment differences across metropolitan areas of the USA," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(5), pages 799-822, September.
- Winters, John V., 2012. "Human Capital Externalities and Employment Differences across Metropolitan Areas of the U.S," IZA Discussion Papers 6869, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Christopher R. Berry & Edward L. Glaeser, 2005. "The divergence of human capital levels across cities," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 84(3), pages 407-444, 08.
- Berry, Christopher R. & Glaeser, Edward L., 2005. "Divergence of Human Capital Levels across Cities," Working Paper Series rwp05-057, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- David Huffman & John M. Quigley, 2002.
"The role of the university in attracting high tech entrepreneurship: A Silicon Valley tale,"
The Annals of Regional Science,
Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 36(3), pages 403-419.
- Huffman, David & Quigley, John M., 2002. "The Role of the University in Attracting High Tech Entrepreneurship: A Silicon Valley Tale," Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy, Working Paper Series qt39p8c937, Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy.
- DaVanzo, Julie, 1983. "Repeat Migration in the United States: Who Moves Back and Who Moves On?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(4), pages 552-59, November.
- Douglas J. Krupka, 2009.
"Location-Specific Human Capital, Location Choice And Amenity Demand,"
Journal of Regional Science,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(5), pages 833-854.
- Krupka, Douglas J., 2007. "Location-Specific Human Capital, Location Choice and Amenity Demand," IZA Discussion Papers 2987, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Christopher R. Berry & Edward L. Glaeser, 2005. "The Divergence of Human Capital Levels Across Cities," NBER Working Papers 11617, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Groen, J.A.Jeffrey A., 2004. "The effect of college location on migration of college-educated labor," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 121(1-2), pages 125-142.
- Bulent Anil & David L. Sjoquist & Sally Wallace, 2010. "The Effect of a Program-Based Housing Move on Employment: HOPE VI in Atlanta," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 77(1), pages 138-160, July.
- M. L. Blackburn, 2010. "The Impact of Internal Migration on Married Couples' Earnings in Britain," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 77(307), pages 584-603, 07.
- Psacharopoulos, George & Patrinos, Harry Anthony, 2002.
"Returns to investment in education : a further update,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2881, The World Bank.
- George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2004. "Returns to investment in education: a further update," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 111-134.
- Arntz, Melanie, 2006.
"What attracts human capital? Understanding the skill composition of interregional job matches in Germany,"
ZEW Discussion Papers
06-62, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Melanie Arntz, 2010. "What Attracts Human Capital? Understanding the Skill Composition of Interregional Job Matches in Germany," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(4), pages 423-441.
- Rauch James E., 1993.
"Productivity Gains from Geographic Concentration of Human Capital: Evidence from the Cities,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 380-400, November.
- James E. Rauch, 1991. "Productivity Gains From Geographic Concentration of human Capital: Evidence From the Cities," NBER Working Papers 3905, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jeffrey J. Yankow, 2003. "Migration, Job Change, and Wage Growth: A New Perspective on the Pecuniary Return to Geographic Mobility," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(3), pages 483-516.
- John V. Winters, 2011. "Why Are Smart Cities Growing? Who Moves And Who Stays," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(2), pages 253-270, 05.
- Winters, John V., 2009. "Wages and prices: Are workers fully compensated for cost of living differences?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 632-643, September.
- repec:hoo:wpaper:e-95-4 is not listed on IDEAS
- Boheim, Rene & Taylor, Mark P., 2007. "From the dark end of the street to the bright side of the road? The wage returns to migration in Britain," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 99-117, January.
- Enrico Moretti, 2002.
"Estimating the Social Return to Higher Education: Evidence From Longitudinal and Repeated Cross-Sectional Data,"
NBER Working Papers
9108, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Moretti, Enrico, 2004. "Estimating the social return to higher education: evidence from longitudinal and repeated cross-sectional data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 121(1-2), pages 175-212.
- Yankow, Jeffrey J., 2006. "Why do cities pay more? An empirical examination of some competing theories of the urban wage premium," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 139-161, September.
- Brigitte Waldorf, 2009. "Is human capital accumulation a self-propelling process? Comparing educational attainment levels of movers and stayers," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 43(2), pages 323-344, June.
- Christopher R. Berry & Edward L. Glaeser, 2005. "The Divergence of Human Capital Levels across Cities," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2091, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- McKinley L. Blackburn, 2010. "Internal migration and the earnings of married couples in the United States," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(1), pages 87-111, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6723. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.