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Ethnic Minorities in the European Union: An Overview

  • Kahanec, Martin

    ()

    (Central European University)

  • Zaiceva, Anzelika

    ()

    (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia)

  • Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    ()

    (IZA and University of Bonn)

This paper sheds light on the labor market situation of ethnic minorities in the European Union. Facing a serious measurement challenge and lacking adequate data, we apply several measures of ethnicity and examine various data sources as well as secondary evidence. We find significant gaps between ethnic minority and majority populations in terms of labor market outcomes. In particular, ethnic minorities appear to face disproportional difficulties in finding a job. Although experience in the host country improves the status of immigrant minorities, we do not find any clear assimilation of further immigrant generations. Roma people seem to face particularly grave integration barriers in European labor markets.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5397.

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Length: 41 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2010
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: M. Kahanec and K. F. Zimmermann (eds.), Ethnic Diversity in European Labor Markets. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, 1 - 30
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5397
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  1. Stephen Wheatley Price, 2001. "The employment adjustment of male immigrants in England," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 193-220.
  2. Alicia Adsera & Barry Chiswick, 2007. "Are there gender and country of origin differences in immigrant labor market outcomes across European destinations?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 495-526, July.
  3. Barry R. Chiswick & Anh T. Le & Paul W. Miller, 2008. "How Immigrants Fare across the Earnings Distribution in Australia and the United States," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 61(3), pages 353-373, April.
  4. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina & de la Rica, Sara, 2006. "Labor Market Assimilation of Recent Immigrants in Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 2104, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Kristin F. Butcher & John DiNardo, 2002. "The Immigrant and native-born wage distributions: Evidence from United States censuses," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 56(1), pages 97-121, October.
  6. George J. Borjas, 1994. "The Economics of Immigration," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1667-1717, December.
  7. Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2008. "Measuring Ethnic Identity and its Impact on Economic Behavior," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 6(2-3), pages 424-433, 04-05.
  8. Helena Skyt Nielsen & Michael Rosholm & Nina Smith & Leif Husted, 2004. "Qualifications, discrimination, or assimilation? An extended framework for analysing immigrant wage gaps," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 855-883, December.
  9. Martin Kahanec & Mariapia Mendola, 2008. "Social Determinants of Labor Market Status of Ethnic Minorities in Britain," Development Working Papers 253, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano.
  10. Joop Hartog & Aslan Zorlu, 2009. "How important is homeland education for refugees’ economic position in The Netherlands?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 219-246, January.
  11. Amelie Constant & Douglas S. Massey, 2003. "Self-selection, earnings, and out-migration: A longitudinal study of immigrants to Germany," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 631-653, November.
  12. Zimmermann, Klaus F. & Kahanec, Martin & Constant, Amelie F. & DeVoretz, Don J. & Gataullina, Liliya & Zaiceva, Anzelika, 2008. "Report No. 16: Study on the Social and Labour Market Integration of Ethnic Minorities," IZA Research Reports 16, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Romain Aeberhardt & Denis Fougère & Julien Pouget & Roland Rathelot, 2010. "Wages and employment of French workers with African origin," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 881-905, June.
  14. Kahanec, Martin, 2007. "Ethnic Competition and Specialization," IZA Discussion Papers 3167, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  15. Zimmermann, Klaus F. (ed.), 2005. "European Migration: What Do We Know?," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199257355, March.
  16. Kahanec, Martin & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2008. "Migration, the Quality of the Labour Force and Economic Inequality," IZA Discussion Papers 3560, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  17. Amelie Constant & Liliya Gataullina & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2006. "Ethnosizing Immigrants," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 567, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  18. Kahanec, Martin & Zaiceva, Anzelika & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2009. "Lessons from Migration after EU Enlargement," IZA Discussion Papers 4230, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  19. Anzelika Zaiceva & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2008. "Scale, diversity, and determinants of�labour migration in Europe," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(3), pages 428-452, Autumn.
  20. Martin Kahanec & Anzelika Zaiceva, 2009. "Labor market outcomes of immigrants and non-citizens in the EU: An East-West comparison," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(1/2), pages 97-115, May.
  21. Alexandre KOLEV, 2005. "Unemployment, job quality and poverty: A case study of Bulgaria," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 144(1), pages 85-114, 03.
  22. Constant, Amelie F., 2003. "Immigrant Adjustment in France and Impacts on the Natives," IZA Discussion Papers 866, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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