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The Post-Enlargement Migration Experience in the Baltic Labor Markets

Author

Listed:
  • Hazans, Mihails

    () (University of Latvia)

  • Philips, Kaia

    () (University of Tartu)

Abstract

We use Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian LFS data (2002-2007) complemented with several other surveys to compare the profile of Baltic temporary workers abroad before and after EU accession with that of stayers and return migrants. Determinants of migration and return, as well as selection issues are discussed. Post-enlargement migrants from all three countries were significantly less educated than stayers. After accession, medium-educated workers were most likely to move, other things equal, and human capital became increasingly less pro-migration over time. Return migrants differ from all movers in many ways and, in particular, are more educated. Although brain drain was not a feature of post-accession Baltic migration, brain waste was: during 2006-2007, the proportion of overqualified among high-educated movers ranged from five out of ten for Latvia to seven out of ten for Lithuania, but it was around one fifth among high-educated stayers in all three countries. We find that the free movement of labor partially introduced in 2004 (and expanded in 2006) for EU citizens, although excluding Baltic non-citizens, brought about significant changes in how ethnicity and citizenship affect workers' mobility. We conclude by discussing migration perspectives in the context of recession.

Suggested Citation

  • Hazans, Mihails & Philips, Kaia, 2011. "The Post-Enlargement Migration Experience in the Baltic Labor Markets," IZA Discussion Papers 5878, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5878
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. DavidG. Blanchflower & Chris Shadforth, 2009. "Fear, Unemployment and Migration," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(535), pages 136-182, February.
    2. Mihails Hazans, 2003. "Determinants of Inter-Regional Migration in the Baltic Countries," ERSA conference papers ersa03p354, European Regional Science Association.
    3. Kahanec, Martin & Zaiceva, Anzelika & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2009. "Lessons from Migration after EU Enlargement," IZA Discussion Papers 4230, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Brücker, Herbert & Jahn, Elke J., 2008. "Migration and the Wage Curve: A Structural Approach to Measure the Wage and Employment Effects of Migration," IZA Discussion Papers 3423, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Barrett, Alan, 2009. "EU Enlargement and Ireland's Labour Market," IZA Discussion Papers 4260, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Christian Dustmann & Albrecht Glitz & Tommaso Frattini, 2008. "The labour market impact of immigration," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(3), pages 478-495, Autumn.
    7. Martin Kahanec & Anzelika Zaiceva, 2009. "Labor market outcomes of immigrants and non-citizens in the EU: An East-West comparison," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(1/2), pages 97-115, March.
    8. Alan Barrett & Seamus McGuinness & Martin O'Brien, 2008. "The Immigrant Earnings Disadvantage Across the Earnings and Skills Distributions: The Case of Immigrants from the EU's New Member States in Ireland," Papers WP236, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    9. Mihails Hazans & Ija Trapeznikova & Olga Rastrigina, 2008. "Ethnic and parental effects on schooling outcomes before and during the transition: evidence from the Baltic countries," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 21(3), pages 719-749, July.
    10. Christian Dustmann & Yoram Weiss, 2007. "Return Migration: Theory and Empirical Evidence," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0702, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mussche, Ninke & Corluy, Vincent & Marx, Ive, 2016. "The Rise of the Free Movements: How Posting Shapes a Hybrid Single European Labour Market," IZA Discussion Papers 10365, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Krasnopjorovs, Olegs, 2013. "Latvijas ekonomikas izaugsmi noteicošie faktori
      [Factors of Economic Growth in Latvia]
      ," MPRA Paper 47550, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Ieva Brauksa & Ludmila Fadejeva, 2013. "Internal Labour Market Mobility in 2005-2011: The Case of Latvia," Working Papers 2013/02, Latvijas Banka.
    4. Jaan Masso & Raul Eamets & Pille Mõtsmees, 2013. "The Effect Of Migration Experience On Occupational Mobility In Estonia," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 92, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
    5. Zaiceva, Anzelika & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2012. "Returning Home at Times of Trouble? Return Migration of EU Enlargement Migrants during the Crisis," IZA Discussion Papers 7111, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Elsner, Benjamin, 2013. "Emigration and wages: The EU enlargement experiment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 154-163.
    7. Michael Fertig, 2013. "Mobility in an enlarging European Union: Projections of potential flows from EU's eastern neighbors and Croatia," Discussion Papers 18, Central European Labour Studies Institute (CELSI).
    8. Sandrine Levasseur, 2011. "labour markets adjustments in Estonia during the global crisis," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2011-25, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
    9. Benjamin Elsner, 2013. "Does emigration benefit the stayers? Evidence from EU enlargement," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 26(2), pages 531-553, April.
    10. Jaan Masso & Raul Eamets & Pille Mõtsmees, 2013. "The Effect of Temporary Migration Experience on Occupational Mobility in Estonia," CESifo Working Paper Series 4322, CESifo Group Munich.
    11. Kahanec, Martin, 2012. "Report No. 49: Skilled Labor Flows: Lessons from the European Union," IZA Research Reports 49, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. Benjamin Elsner, 2010. "Does Emigration Benefit the Stayers? The EU Enlargement as a Natural Experiment. Evidence from Lithuania," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp326, IIIS.
    13. Sandrine LEVASSEUR, 2012. "Labour market adjustments in Estonia during the 2008/2011 crisis," Eastern Journal of European Studies, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 3, pages 123-143, June.
    14. Jaan Masso & K. Espenberg & Anu Masso & I. Mierina & Kaia Philips, 2013. "GINI Country Report: Growing Inequalities and their Impacts in the Baltic States Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania," GINI Country Reports baltics, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    return migrants; Baltic countries; EU enlargement; migration; ethnic minorities;

    JEL classification:

    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination

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