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The Post-Enlargement Migration Experience in the Baltic Labor Markets

Author

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  • Hazans, Mihails

    (University of Latvia)

  • Philips, Kaia

    (University of Tartu)

Abstract

We use Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian LFS data (2002-2007) complemented with several other surveys to compare the profile of Baltic temporary workers abroad before and after EU accession with that of stayers and return migrants. Determinants of migration and return, as well as selection issues are discussed. Post-enlargement migrants from all three countries were significantly less educated than stayers. After accession, medium-educated workers were most likely to move, other things equal, and human capital became increasingly less pro-migration over time. Return migrants differ from all movers in many ways and, in particular, are more educated. Although brain drain was not a feature of post-accession Baltic migration, brain waste was: during 2006-2007, the proportion of overqualified among high-educated movers ranged from five out of ten for Latvia to seven out of ten for Lithuania, but it was around one fifth among high-educated stayers in all three countries. We find that the free movement of labor partially introduced in 2004 (and expanded in 2006) for EU citizens, although excluding Baltic non-citizens, brought about significant changes in how ethnicity and citizenship affect workers' mobility. We conclude by discussing migration perspectives in the context of recession.

Suggested Citation

  • Hazans, Mihails & Philips, Kaia, 2011. "The Post-Enlargement Migration Experience in the Baltic Labor Markets," IZA Discussion Papers 5878, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5878
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Jaan Masso & Raul Eamets & Pille Mõtsmees, 2013. "The Effect of Temporary Migration Experience on Occupational Mobility in Estonia," CESifo Working Paper Series 4322, CESifo.
    2. Elsner, Benjamin, 2013. "Emigration and wages: The EU enlargement experiment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 154-163.
    3. Ritzen, Jo & Kahanec, Martin & Haas, Jasmina, 2017. "EU Mobility," IZA Policy Papers 125, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    4. Sandrine Levasseur, 2011. "Labour market adjustments in Estonia during the global crisis," Working Papers hal-01069525, HAL.
    5. Anzelika Zaiceva, 2014. "Post-enlargement emigration and new EU members' labor markets," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 1-40, August.
    6. Tiiu Paas, 2014. "Cross-border labour mobility: are East-West and East-East cross-border labour flows differ?," ERSA conference papers ersa14p50, European Regional Science Association.
    7. Mussche, Ninke & Corluy, Vincent & Marx, Ive, 2016. "The Rise of the Free Movements: How Posting Shapes a Hybrid Single European Labour Market," IZA Discussion Papers 10365, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    8. Kahanec, Martin, 2012. "Skilled Labor Flows: Lessons from the European Union," IZA Research Reports 49, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Krasnopjorovs, Olegs, 2013. "Latvijas ekonomikas izaugsmi noteicošie faktori [Factors of Economic Growth in Latvia]," MPRA Paper 47550, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Benjamin Elsner, 2010. "Does Emigration Benefit the Stayers? The EU Enlargement as a Natural Experiment. Evidence from Lithuania," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp326, IIIS.
    11. Fertig, Michael & Kahanec, Martin, 2013. "Mobility in an Enlarging European Union: Projections of Potential Flows from EU's Eastern Neighbors and Croatia," IZA Discussion Papers 7634, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    12. Ieva Brauksa & Ludmila Fadejeva, 2013. "Internal Labour Market Mobility in 2005-2011: The Case of Latvia," Working Papers 2013/02, Latvijas Banka.
    13. Jaan Masso & Raul Eamets & Pille Mõtsmees, 2013. "The Effect Of Migration Experience On Occupational Mobility In Estonia," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 92, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
    14. Zaiceva, Anzelika & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2012. "Returning Home at Times of Trouble? Return Migration of EU Enlargement Migrants during the Crisis," IZA Discussion Papers 7111, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    15. Sandrine LEVASSEUR, 2012. "Labour market adjustments in Estonia during the 2008/2011 crisis," Eastern Journal of European Studies, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 3, pages 123-143, June.
    16. Maryna Tverdostup & Jaan Masso, 2016. "The labour market performance of young return migrants after the crisis in CEE countries: the case of Estonia," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 16(2), pages 192-220.
    17. Martin Kahanec, 2013. "Labor mobility in an enlarged European Union," Chapters, in: Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann (ed.), International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, chapter 7, pages 137-152, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    18. Michael Fertig & Martin Kahanec, 2015. "Projections of potential flows to the enlarging EU from Ukraine, Croatia and other Eastern neighbors," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 4(1), pages 1-27, December.
    19. Mihails Hazans, 2011. "Labor Market Integration of Ethnic Minorities in Latvia," Chapters, in: Martin Kahanec & Klaus F. Zimmermann (ed.), Ethnic Diversity in European Labor Markets, chapter 8, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    20. Ludmila Fadejeva & Ieva Opmane, 2016. "Internal labour market mobility in 2005–2014 in Latvia: the micro data approach," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 16(2), pages 152-174.
    21. Benjamin Elsner, 2013. "Does emigration benefit the stayers? Evidence from EU enlargement," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 26(2), pages 531-553, April.
    22. Jaan Masso & K. Espenberg & Anu Masso & I. Mierina & Kaia Philips, 2013. "GINI Country Report: Growing Inequalities and their Impacts in the Baltic States Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania," GINI Country Reports baltics, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
    23. Kureková, Lucia Mýtna & Žilin?íková, Zuzana, 2016. "What is the Value of Foreign Work Experience? Analysing Online CV Data in Slovakia," IZA Discussion Papers 9921, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    return migrants; Baltic countries; EU enlargement; migration; ethnic minorities;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination

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