Wage Dispersion and Firm Productivity in Different Working Environments
This paper investigates the impact of wage dispersion on firm productivity in different working environments. More precisely, it examines the interaction with: i) the skills of the workforce, using a more appropriate indicator than the standard distinction between white- and blue collar workers, and ii) the uncertainty of the firm economic environment, which has, to our knowledge, never been explored on an empirical basis. Using detailed LEED for Belgium, we find a hump-shaped relationship between (conditional) wage dispersion and firm productivity. This result suggests that up to (beyond) a certain level of wage dispersion, the incentive effects of “tournaments” dominate (are dominated by) “fairness” considerations. Findings also show that the intensity of the relationship is stronger for highly skilled workers and in more stable environments. This might be explained by the fact that monitoring costs and production-effort elasticity are greater for highly skilled workers and that in the presence of high uncertainty workers have less control over their effort-output relation and associate higher uncertainty with more unfair environments.
|Date of creation:||Feb 2009|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published in: British Journal of Industrial Relations, 2011, 49 (3), 460 - 485|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Levine, David, 1989.
"Cohesiveness, Productivity, and Wage Dispersion,"
Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series
qt8kd4d0p4, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
- Lazear, Edward P, 1989. "Pay Equality and Industrial Politics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(3), pages 561-80, June.
- Erling Barth & Bernt Bratsberg & Torbjørn Hægeland & Oddbjørn Raaum, 2008.
"Who pays for performance?,"
International Journal of Manpower,
Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 29(1), pages 8-29, May.
- Milgrom, Paul R., 1987.
"employment contracts, influence activities and efficient organization design,"
Department of Economics, Working Paper Series
qt6pf6c5j6, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Milgrom, Paul R, 1988. "Employment Contracts, Influence Activities, and Efficient Organization Design," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(1), pages 42-60, February.
- Paul R. Milgrom., 1987. "Employment Contracts, Influence Activities and Efficient Organization Design," Economics Working Papers 8741, University of California at Berkeley.
- Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimüller, Josef, 1997.
"Intra-firm Wage Dispersion and Firm Performance,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1621, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Lazear, Edward P & Rosen, Sherwin, 1981.
"Rank-Order Tournaments as Optimum Labor Contracts,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(5), pages 841-64, October.
- Pedro S. Martins, 2008.
"Dispersion in Wage Premiums and Firm Performance,"
8, Queen Mary, University of London, School of Business and Management, Centre for Globalisation Research.
- Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1990. "The Efficiency of Equity in Organizational Decision Processes," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 154-59, May.
- Thierry Lallemand & Robert Plasman & François Rycx, 2009.
"Wage Structure and Firm Productivity in Belgium,"
in: The Structure of Wages: An International Comparison, pages 179-215
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Thierry Lallemand & Robert Plasman & Francois Rycx, 2007. "Wage Structure and Firm Productivity in Belgium," NBER Working Papers 12978, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert Plasman & Thierry Lallemand & François Rycx, 2005. "Wage structure and firm productivity in Belgium," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/8058, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Thierry Lallemand & Robert Plasman & François Rycx, 2009. "Wage structure and firm productivity in Belgium," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/8733, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Canice Prendergast, 2002. "The Tenuous Trade-off between Risk and Incentives," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 110(5), pages 1071-1102, October.
- Foss, Nicolai J. & Laursen, Keld, 2005.
"Performance pay, delegation and multitasking under uncertainty and innovativeness: An empirical investigation,"
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 246-276, October.
- Nicolai J. Foss & Keld Laursen, 2002. "Performance Pay, Delegation, and Multitasking under Uncertainty and Innovativeness An Empirical Investigation," DRUID Working Papers 02-14, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
- Main, Brian G M & O'Reilly, Charles A, III & Wade, James, 1993. "Top Executive Pay: Tournament or Teamwork?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(4), pages 606-28, October.
- Hibbs Jr., Douglas A. & Locking, Håkan, 2000.
"Wage Dispersion and Productive Efficiency: Evidence For Sweden,"
Working Papers in Economics
21, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
- Hibbs, Douglas A, Jr & Locking, Hakan, 2000. "Wage Dispersion and Productive Efficiency: Evidence for Sweden," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(4), pages 755-82, October.
- White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
- Fredrik Heyman, 2005.
"Pay inequality and firm performance: evidence from matched employer-employee data,"
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(11), pages 1313-1327.
- Heyman, Fredrik, 2002. "Pay Inequality and Firm Performance: Evidence from Matched Employer-Employee Data," Working Paper Series 186, Trade Union Institute for Economic Research.
- Donald Richards & Robert Guell, 1998. "Baseball success and the structure of salaries," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(5), pages 291-296.
- Uwe Jirjahn & Kornelius Kraft, 2007. "Intra-firm Wage Dispersion and Firm Performance - Is There a Uniform Relationship?," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(2), pages 231-253, 05.
- Edward P. Lazear & Paul Oyer, 2007.
NBER Working Papers
13480, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Edward P. Lazear, 1995. "Personnel Economics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262121883, March.
- Edward P. Lazear & Paul Oyer, 2012. "Personnel Economics," Introductory Chapters, in: Robert Gibbons & John Roberts (ed.), The Handbook of Organizational Economics Princeton University Press.
- P. B. Beaumont & R. I. D. Harris, 2003. "Internal Wage Structures and Organizational Performance," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 41(1), pages 53-70, 03.
- George A. Akerlof & Janet L. Yellen, 1990. "The Fair Wage-Effort Hypothesis and Unemployment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(2), pages 255-283.
- Nils Braakmann, 2008. "Intra-firm wage inequality and firm performance – First evidence from German linked employer-employee-data," Working Paper Series in Economics 77, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
- Eriksson, Tor, 1999. "Executive Compensation and Tournament Theory: Empirical Tests on Danish Data," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(2), pages 262-80, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4044. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.