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Naturalization Proclivities, Ethnicity and Integration

Author

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  • Constant, Amelie F.

    (Temple University)

  • Gataullina, Liliya

    (IZA)

  • Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    (University of Bonn)

Abstract

This paper studies the determinants of naturalization among Turkish and ex-Yugoslav immigrants in Germany differentiating between actual and planned citizenship. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel, we measure the impact that integration and ethnicity indicators exert on the probability to naturalize beyond the standard individual and human capital characteristics. A robust finding is that German citizenship is very valuable to female immigrants and the generally better educated, but not to those educated in Germany. We find that the degree of integration in German society has a differential effect on citizenship acquisition. While a longer residence in Germany has a negative influence on actual or future naturalization, arriving at a younger age and having close German friends are strong indicators of a positive proclivity to citizenship acquisition. Likewise, ethnic origins and religion also influence these decisions. Muslim immigrants in Germany are more willing to become German citizens than non-Muslim immigrants, but there are also fewer German citizens among Muslims than among non-Muslims.

Suggested Citation

  • Constant, Amelie F. & Gataullina, Liliya & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2007. "Naturalization Proclivities, Ethnicity and Integration," IZA Discussion Papers 3260, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp3260
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. DeVoretz, Don J., 2006. "The Economics of Citizenship: A Common Intellectual Ground for Social Scientists?," IZA Discussion Papers 2392, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Constant, Amelie F. & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2005. "Legal Status at Entry, Economic Performance, and Self-employment Proclivity: A Bi-national Study of Immigrants," IZA Discussion Papers 1910, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    3. Constant, Amelie & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 2007. "Circular Migration: Counts of Exits and Years Away from the Host Country," CEPR Discussion Papers 6438, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Bernt Bratsberg & James F. Ragan & Zafar M. Nasir, 2002. "The Effect of Naturalization on Wage Growth: A Panel Study of Young Male Immigrants," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(3), pages 568-597, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Amelie F. Constant & Annabelle Krause & Ulf Rinne & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2011. "Economic preferences and attitudes of the unemployed: Are natives and second generation migrants alike?," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(7), pages 825-851, October.
    2. Amelie F. Constant & Annabelle Krause & Ulf Rinne & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2017. "Reservation wages of first- and second-generation migrants," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(13), pages 945-949, July.
    3. Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2011. "Migration, Ethnicity and Economic Integration," Chapters, in: Miroslav N. Jovanović (ed.), International Handbook on the Economics of Integration, Volume III, chapter 7, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Brenner, Jan, 2010. "Life-cycle variations in the association between current and lifetime earnings: Evidence for German natives and guest workers," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 392-406, April.
    5. Bağçe, Sinem & Yılmaz, Ensar & Kılıç, İbrahim Engin, 2021. "Ethnic identity and economic welfare," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 45(3).
    6. Jan Brenner, 2009. "Life-Cycle Variations in the Association between Current and Lifetime Earnings – Evidence for German Natives and Guest Workers," Ruhr Economic Papers 0095, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
    7. Don J. DeVoretz, 2013. "The economics of immigrant citizenship ascension," Chapters, in: Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann (ed.), International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, chapter 25, pages 470-488, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    8. Eva Dziadula, 2020. "Marriage and Citizenship Among U.S. Immigrants: Who Marries Whom and Who Becomes a Citizen?," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan;Eastern Economic Association, vol. 46(1), pages 34-52, January.
    9. Constant, Amelie F. & Nottmeyer, Olga & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2009. "Cultural Integration in Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 4675, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Christina Gathmann & Nicolas Keller, 2014. "Returns to Citizenship?: Evidence from Germany's Recent Immigration Reforms," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 656, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    11. Denis Fougère, 2011. "Social and Labor Market Integration of Ethnic Minorities in France: Has the French Integration Model Broken Down?," Chapters, in: Martin Kahanec & Klaus F. Zimmermann (ed.), Ethnic Diversity in European Labor Markets, chapter 5, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    12. Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2013. "Immigrants, ethnic identities and the nation-state," Chapters, in: Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann (ed.), International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, chapter 14, pages 259-275, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    13. Davide Azzolini & Raffaele Guetto, 2017. "The impact of citizenship on intermarriage: Quasi-experimental evidence from two European Union Eastern enlargements," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 36(43), pages 1299-1336.
    14. Denis Fougère & Mirna Safi, 2009. "Naturalization and employment of immigrants in France (1968-1999)," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(1/2), pages 83-96, March.
    15. repec:zbw:rwirep:0095 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Fougère, Denis & Safi, Mirna, 2008. "The Effects of Naturalization on Immigrants’ Employment Probability (France, 1968–1999)," IZA Discussion Papers 3372, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    17. Dutta, Nabamita & Kar, Saibal & Roy, Sanjukta, 2014. "Education and Self-Employment: South Asian Immigrants in the US Labor Market," IZA Discussion Papers 8152, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    ethnicity; naturalization; citizenship; integration;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

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