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Naturalization and Earnings: A Denmark–Sweden Comparison

Author

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  • Jonas Helgertz

    ()

  • Pieter Bevelander

    ()

  • Anna Tegunimataka

    ()

Abstract

The determinants and consequences of the naturalization of immigrants is a hot topic in the political debate in Europe. This article compares the effect of naturalization on the income attainment of immigrants in two Scandinavian countries, Denmark and Sweden, using longitudinal register data from 1986 and onward. Sweden is characterized by low obstacles to naturalization, and existing studies provide inconclusive evidence regarding the impact of naturalization on labor market outcomes. Denmark is instead characterized by higher barriers to naturalization, as well as a virtual inexistence of previous studies on the topic. Results, obtained through individual fixed-effect regression analysis, suggest similar effects in both countries. A consistent naturalization premium is detected for immigrants of Asian and African descent, but not for any other immigrant group. The similarity across contexts arguably questions the use of more stringent naturalization laws to promote the economic integration of immigrants. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Suggested Citation

  • Jonas Helgertz & Pieter Bevelander & Anna Tegunimataka, 2014. "Naturalization and Earnings: A Denmark–Sweden Comparison," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 30(3), pages 337-359, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:eurpop:v:30:y:2014:i:3:p:337-359
    DOI: 10.1007/s10680-014-9315-z
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Pieter Bevelander and Ravi Pendakur, 2012. "Citizenship acquisition, employment prospects and earnings: comparing two cool countries," EUI-RSCAS Working Papers 7, European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS).
    2. Chiswick, Barry R, 1978. "The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-born Men," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 897-921, October.
    3. Carlsson, Magnus & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2007. "Evidence of ethnic discrimination in the Swedish labor market using experimental data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 716-729, August.
    4. Francesca Mazzolari, 2009. "Dual citizenship rights: do they make more and richer citizens?," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 46(1), pages 169-191, February.
    5. Constant, Amelie F. & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2005. "Legal Status at Entry, Economic Performance, and Self-employment Proclivity: A Bi-national Study of Immigrants," IZA Discussion Papers 1910, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Vincent Corluy & Ive Marx & Gerlinde Verbist, 2011. "Employment chances and changes of immigrants in Belgium: the impact of citizenship," Working Papers 1107, Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy, University of Antwerp.
    7. Peder J. Pedersen, 2013. "Immigration and welfare state cash benefits: the Danish case," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 34(2), pages 113-125, May.
    8. Bernt Bratsberg & James F. Ragan & Zafar M. Nasir, 2002. "The Effect of Naturalization on Wage Growth: A Panel Study of Young Male Immigrants," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(3), pages 568-597, July.
    9. Bevelander, Pieter & Veenman, Justus, 2006. "Naturalisation and Socioeconomic Integration: The Case of the Netherlands," IZA Discussion Papers 2153, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Steinhardt, Max Friedrich, 2012. "Does citizenship matter? The economic impact of naturalizations in Germany," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 813-823.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:cog:socinc:v:7:y:2019:i:4:p:18-27 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Vahan Sargsyan, 2017. "Treatment-Related Naturalization Premiums in Two European Countries: Evaluation and Comparison," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp585, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    3. Ivana Fellini & Raffaele Guetto, 2019. "Legal Status and Immigrants’ Labour Market Outcomes: Comparative Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment in Western and Southern Europe," Econometrics Working Papers Archive 2019_11, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Statistica, Informatica, Applicazioni "G. Parenti".
    4. Catron, Peter, 2017. "The Citizenship Advantage: Immigrant Socioeconomic Attainment across Generations in the First Half of the Twentieth Century," SocArXiv c7k45, Center for Open Science.
    5. Vahan Sargsyan, 2018. "Social Integration of Immigrants and the Attitude of the Native Population in European Countries," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp629, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    6. Rezart Hoxhaj & Maarten Vink & Tijana Prokic-Breuer, 2019. "Immigrant Naturalisation, Employment and Occupational Status in Western Europe," RSCAS Working Papers 2019/16, European University Institute.

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