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Naturalization and citizenship: Who benefits?

Author

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  • Christina Gathmann

    (University of Heidelberg and IZA, Germany)

Abstract

Politicians, the media, and the public express concern that many immigrants fail to integrate economically. Research shows that the option to naturalize has considerable economic benefits for eligible immigrants, even in countries with a tradition of restrictive policies. First-generation immigrants who are naturalized have higher earnings and more stable jobs. The gains from citizenship are particularly apparent among immigrants from poorer countries. A key policy question is whether naturalization causes labor market success or is taken up by those immigrants who would anyway be most likely to succeed in the labor market.

Suggested Citation

  • Christina Gathmann, 2015. "Naturalization and citizenship: Who benefits?," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 125-125, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izawol:journl:y:2015:n:125
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ciro Avitabile & Irma Clots-Figueras & Paolo Masella, 2013. "The Effect of Birthright Citizenship on Parental Integration Outcomes," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 56(3), pages 777-810.
    2. Steinhardt, Max Friedrich, 2012. "Does citizenship matter? The economic impact of naturalizations in Germany," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 813-823.
    3. Francesca Mazzolari, 2009. "Dual citizenship rights: do they make more and richer citizens?," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 46(1), pages 169-191, February.
    4. Bernt Bratsberg & James F. Ragan & Zafar M. Nasir, 2002. "The Effect of Naturalization on Wage Growth: A Panel Study of Young Male Immigrants," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(3), pages 568-597, July.
    5. Christina Gathmann & Nicolas Keller, 2014. "Returns to Citizenship?: Evidence from Germany's Recent Immigration Reforms," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 656, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    6. Bevelander, Pieter & Veenman, Justus, 2006. "Naturalisation and Socioeconomic Integration: The Case of the Netherlands," IZA Discussion Papers 2153, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
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    Cited by:

    1. Lochmann, Alexia & Rapoport, Hillel & Speciale, Biagio, 2019. "The effect of language training on immigrants’ economic integration: Empirical evidence from France," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 265-296.
    2. Hinte, Holger & Rinne, Ulf & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2015. "Punkte machen?! Warum Deutschland ein aktives Auswahlsystem für ausländische Fachkräfte braucht," IZA Standpunkte 79, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    citizenship; economic integration; assimilation; immigration; Europe;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • K37 - Law and Economics - - Other Substantive Areas of Law - - - Immigration Law

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