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Immigrant Naturalisation, Employment and Occupational Status in Western Europe

Author

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  • Rezart Hoxhaj
  • Maarten Vink
  • Tijana Prokic-Breuer

Abstract

Does citizenship facilitate access to employment and higher status jobs? Existing case studies have produced mixed results across mostly single case studies in Europe and North America. To investigate whether this heterogeneity depends on varying institutional and socio-economic conditions, in this paper we analyse the labour market outcomes of immigrants who have naturalised in 13 West European countries. Our empirical analysis draws on data from the 2014 European Labour Force Survey Ad Hoc Module on immigrants. In order to cope with the selective nature of the naturalisation process, we employ a bivariate probit model that accounts for unobserved characteristics of naturalising immigrants. Our main results show a positive relationship across these destination countries between citizenship and the probability of employment for both immigrant men and women, as well as between citizenship and occupational status for men. Liberalising the access to citizenship does not diminish the positive returns on employment from naturalisation. For immigrant men there is evidence of a trade-off between easier access to citizenship and the returns on occupational status.

Suggested Citation

  • Rezart Hoxhaj & Maarten Vink & Tijana Prokic-Breuer, 2019. "Immigrant Naturalisation, Employment and Occupational Status in Western Europe," RSCAS Working Papers 2019/16, European University Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:rsc:rsceui:2019/16
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Steinhardt, Max Friedrich, 2012. "Does citizenship matter? The economic impact of naturalizations in Germany," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 813-823.
    2. Yann Algan & Christian Dustmann & Albrecht Glitz & Allan Manning, 2010. "The Economic Situation of First ans Second-Generation in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/536kq4edtr8, Sciences Po.
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    4. Yann Algan & Christian Dustmann & Albrecht Glitz & Alan Manning, 2010. "The Economic Situation of First and Second-Generation Immigrants in France, Germany and the United Kingdom," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 120(542), pages 4-30, February.
    5. Jaap Dronkers & Maarten Peter Vink, 2012. "Explaining access to citizenship in Europe: How citizenship policies affect naturalization rates," European Union Politics, , vol. 13(3), pages 390-412, September.
    6. Friedrich Poeschel, 2016. "Raising the mobility of third-country nationals in the EU. Effects from naturalisation and long-term resident status," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 187, OECD Publishing.
    7. Bevelander, Pieter & Veenman, Justus, 2006. "Naturalisation and Socioeconomic Integration: The Case of the Netherlands," IZA Discussion Papers 2153, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    8. Chiswick, Barry R, 1978. "The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-born Men," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 897-921, October.
    9. Bernt Bratsberg & James F. Ragan & Zafar M. Nasir, 2002. "The Effect of Naturalization on Wage Growth: A Panel Study of Young Male Immigrants," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(3), pages 568-597, July.
    10. Jonas Helgertz & Pieter Bevelander & Anna Tegunimataka, 2014. "Naturalization and Earnings: A Denmark–Sweden Comparison," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 30(3), pages 337-359, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. McGinnity, Frances & Privalko, Ivan & Fahey, Éamonn & O'Brien, Doireann & Enright, Shannen, 2020. "Origin and integration: a study of migrants in the 2016 Irish Census," Research Series, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number BKMNEXT392, December.
    2. McGinnity, Frances & Enright, Shannen & Quinn, Emma & Maître, Bertrand & Privalko, Ivan & Darmody, Merike & Polakowski, Michal, 2020. "Monitoring report on integration 2020," Research Series, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number BKMNEXT403, December.
    3. Groarke, Sarah & Dunbar, Róisín, 2020. "Pathways to citizenship through naturalisation in Ireland," Research Series, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number RS116, December.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Citizenship; Employment; Job status; Western Europe;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • K37 - Law and Economics - - Other Substantive Areas of Law - - - Immigration Law

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