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Circular Migration: Counts of Exits and Years Away from the Host Country

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  • Constant, Amelie
  • Zimmermann, Klaus F

Abstract

The economic literature has largely overlooked the importance of repeat and circular migration. The paper studies this behaviour by analyzing the number of exits and the total number of years away from the host country using count data models and panel data from Germany. More than 60% of migrants from the guestworker countries are indeed repeat or circular migrants. Migrants from European Union member countries, those not owning a dwelling in Germany, the younger and the older (excluding the middle ages), are significantly more likely to engage in repeat migration and to stay out for longer. Males and those migrants with German passports exit more frequently, while those with higher education exit less; there are no differences with time spent out. Migrants with family in the home country remain out longer, and those closely attached to the labour market remain less; they are not leaving the country more frequently.

Suggested Citation

  • Constant, Amelie & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 2007. "Circular Migration: Counts of Exits and Years Away from the Host Country," CEPR Discussion Papers 6438, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:6438
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    1. Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2012. "The Dynamics of Repeat Migration: A Markov Chain Analysis," International Migration Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(2), pages 362-388, June.
    2. Borjas, George J, 1989. "Immigrant and Emigrant Earnings: A Longitudinal Study," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 27(1), pages 21-37, January.
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    4. DaVanzo, Julie, 1983. "Repeat Migration in the United States: Who Moves Back and Who Moves On?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(4), pages 552-559, November.
    5. Klaus F. Zimmermann, 1996. "European Migration: Push and Pull," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 19(1-2), pages 95-128, April.
    6. Katharine Donato & Jorge Durand & Douglas Massey, 1992. "Stemming the tide? Assessing the deterrent effects of the immigration reform and control act," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 29(2), pages 139-157, May.
    7. SOEP Group, 2001. "The German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) after More than 15 Years: Overview," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 70(1), pages 7-14.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Schiff, Maurice, 2007. "Optimal Immigration Policy: Permanent, Guest-Worker, or Mode IV?," IZA Discussion Papers 2871, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Venelin Boshnakov, 2019. "Future Plans of Bulgarian Circular Migrants: Empirical Evidence from Bus Travelers," Economic Studies journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 1, pages 80-94.
    3. Klaus F. Zimmermann & Amelie F. Constant & Liliya Gataullina, 2009. "Naturalization proclivities, ethnicity and integration," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(1/2), pages 70-82, March.
    4. Florin P. Vadean & Matloob Piracha, 2009. "Circular Migration or Permanent Return: What Determines Different Forms of Migration?," Studies in Economics 0912, School of Economics, University of Kent.
    5. Amelie F. Constant & Olga Nottmeyer & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2013. "The economics of circular migration," Chapters, in: Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann (ed.), International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, chapter 3, pages 55-74, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    6. Govert Bijwaard, 2010. "Immigrant migration dynamics model for The Netherlands," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 23(4), pages 1213-1247, September.
    7. Philip McCann & Jacques Poot & Lynda Sanderson, 2010. "Migration, relationship capital and international travel: theory and evidence," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(3), pages 361-387, May.
    8. DavidG. Blanchflower & Chris Shadforth, 2009. "Fear, Unemployment and Migration," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(535), pages 136-182, February.
    9. Elke Holst & Andrea Schäfer & Mechthild Schrooten, 2010. "Gender, Transnational Networks and Remittances: Evidence from Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 296, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    10. Blanchflower, David G. & Lawton, Helen, 2008. "The Impact of the Recent Expansion of the EU on the UK Labour Market," IZA Discussion Papers 3695, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    11. repec:rsc:rsceui:2008/39 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Alessandra Venturini, 2012. "Methodological Aspects of Research on Flows Human Capital Flows: A survey," RSCAS Working Papers carim2012/01, European University Institute.
    13. Lee, Sang-Hyop & Sukrakarn, Nopparat & Choi, Jin-Young, 2011. "Repeat migration and remittances: Evidence from Thai migrant workers," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 142-151, April.
    14. David G. Blanchflower & Chris Shadforth, 2009. "Fear, Unemployment and Migration," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(535), pages 136-182, February.
    15. Alessandra Venturini, 2008. "Circular Migration as an Employment Strategy for Mediterranean Countries," RSCAS Working Papers carim2008/39, European University Institute.
    16. Govert E. Bijwaard, 2008. "Modeling Migration Dynamics of Immigrants," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-070/4, Tinbergen Institute.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    circular migration; count data; guestworkers; minorities; repeat migration;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities
    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

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