Circular Movements and Time Away From the Host Country
The economic literature has largely overlooked the importance of repeat migration. This Paper studies repeat or circular migration as it is manifested by the frequency of exits of migrants living in Germany, and by the number of years away from the host country using count data models. More than 60% of the guest worker generations currently living in Germany, the largest European immigration country, are indeed repeat migrants. The findings indicate that immigrants from European countries, the less educated, those with weak labour market attachments, younger and older people (excluding middle ages), and newcomers and the more seasoned are significantly more likely to engage in circular migration and to stay out of Germany for longer. Males exit more frequently than females but do not differ in the time spent out. Those migrants with family in the home country remain out longer but are not more frequently out.
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- Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2012.
"The Dynamics of Repeat Migration: A Markov Chain Analysis,"
International Migration Review,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(2), pages 362-388, 06.
- Constant, Amelie & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 2003. "The Dynamics of Repeat Migration: A Markov Chain Analysis," CEPR Discussion Papers 4124, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Amelie Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2003. "The Dynamics of Repeat Migration: A Markov Chain Analysis," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 378, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Constant, Amelie F. & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2003. "The Dynamics of Repeat Migration: A Markov Chain Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 885, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Katharine Donato & Jorge Durand & Douglas Massey, 1992. "Stemming the tide? Assessing the deterrent effects of the immigration reform and control act," Demography, Springer, vol. 29(2), pages 139-157, May.
- Klaus F. Zimmermann & Thomas K. Bauer (ed.), 2002. "The Economics of Migration," Books, Edward Elgar, volume 0, number 1448, 6.
- DaVanzo, Julie, 1983. "Repeat Migration in the United States: Who Moves Back and Who Moves On?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(4), pages 552-59, November.
- Klaus F. Zimmermann, 1996. "European Migration: Push and Pull," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 19(1-2), pages 95-128, April.
- Borjas, George J, 1989. "Immigrant and Emigrant Earnings: A Longitudinal Study," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 27(1), pages 21-37, January.
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