Circular Migration: Counts of Exits and Years away from the Host Country
The economic literature has largely overlooked the importance of repeat and circular migration. The paper studies this behavior by analyzing the number of exits and the total number of years away from the host country using count data models and panel data from Germany. More than 60% of migrants from the guestworker countries are indeed repeat or circular migrants. Migrants from European Union member countries, those not owning a dwelling in Germany, the younger and the older (excluding the middle ages), are significantly more likely to engage in repeat migration and to stay out for longer. Males and those migrants with German passports exit more frequently, while those with higher education exit less; there are no differences with time spent out. Migrants with family in the home country remain out longer, and those closely attached to the labor market remain less; they are not leaving the country more frequently.
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- Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2012.
"The Dynamics of Repeat Migration: A Markov Chain Analysis,"
International Migration Review,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(2), pages 362-388, 06.
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- DaVanzo, Julie, 1983. "Repeat Migration in the United States: Who Moves Back and Who Moves On?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(4), pages 552-59, November.
- Klaus F. Zimmermann, 1996. "European Migration: Push and Pull," International Regional Science Review, SAGE Publishing, vol. 19(1-2), pages 95-128, April.
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