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Circular Movements and Time Away from the Host Country

Author

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  • Constant, Amelie F.

    () (Temple University)

  • Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    (University of Bonn)

Abstract

The economic literature has largely overlooked the importance of repeat migration. This paper studies repeat or circular migration as it is manifested by the frequency of exits of migrants living in Germany, and by the number of years being away from the host country using count data models. More than 60% of the guestworker generation currently living in Germany, the largest European immigration country, are indeed repeat migrants. The findings indicate that immigrants from European countries, the less educated, those with weak labor market attachments, the younger and the older people (excluding the middle ages), and the newcomers and the more seasoned are significantly more likely to engage in circular migration and to stay out of Germany for longer. Males exit more frequently than females but do not differ in the time spent out. Those migrants with family in the home country remain out longer but are not more frequently out.

Suggested Citation

  • Constant, Amelie F. & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2003. "Circular Movements and Time Away from the Host Country," IZA Discussion Papers 960, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp960
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Katharine Donato & Jorge Durand & Douglas Massey, 1992. "Stemming the tide? Assessing the deterrent effects of the immigration reform and control act," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 29(2), pages 139-157, May.
    2. Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2012. "The Dynamics of Repeat Migration: A Markov Chain Analysis," International Migration Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(2), pages 362-388, June.
    3. Borjas, George J, 1989. "Immigrant and Emigrant Earnings: A Longitudinal Study," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 27(1), pages 21-37, January.
    4. DaVanzo, Julie, 1983. "Repeat Migration in the United States: Who Moves Back and Who Moves On?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(4), pages 552-559, November.
    5. Klaus F. Zimmermann, 1996. "European Migration: Push and Pull," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 19(1-2), pages 95-128, April.
    6. Klaus F. Zimmermann & Thomas K. Bauer (ed.), 2002. "The Economics of Migration," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, volume 0, number 1448.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bijwaard, G.E., 2009. "Labour Market Status and Migration Dynamics," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2009-25, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
    2. Bijwaard, Govert, 2007. "Modeling Migration Dynamics of Immigrants: The Case of The Netherlands," IZA Discussion Papers 2891, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2012. "The Dynamics of Repeat Migration: A Markov Chain Analysis," International Migration Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(2), pages 362-388, June.
    4. Amelie F. Constant & Olga Nottmeyer & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2013. "The economics of circular migration," Chapters,in: International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, chapter 3, pages 55-74 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. Tani, Massimiliano, 2006. "Head-content or Headcount? Short-term Skilled Labour Movements as a Source of Growth," IZA Discussion Papers 1934, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    repeat migration; circular migration; guestworkers; minorities;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

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