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Naturalization proclivities, ethnicity and integration

Author

Listed:
  • Klaus F. Zimmermann
  • Amelie F. Constant
  • Liliya Gataullina

Abstract

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the determinants of naturalization of non-EU immigrant household heads with a fresh look at the role of integration and ethnicity. Design/methodology/approach - Employing data on immigrant household heads from the German Socioeconomic Panel differentiation is made among those who already have been naturalized, those who plan to take citizenship, and those who do not have citizenship and do not want it, using multinomial probit models. The subject scope includes literature on naturalization, ethnicity, and integration. Findings - A robust finding is that German citizenship is very valuable to female immigrant household heads and the generally better educated, but not to those educated in Germany. The degree of integration into German society has a differential effect on citizenship acquisition. While a longer residence in Germany has a negative influence on actual or future naturalization, arriving at a younger age and having close German friends are strong indicators of a positive proclivity to citizenship acquisition. Likewise, ethnic origins and religion also influence these decisions. Muslim immigrants in Germany are more willing to become German citizens than non-Muslim immigrants, but there are also fewer German citizens among Muslims than among non-Muslims. Research limitations/implications - Future research should also investigate the second-generation naturalization proclivities and those of illegals. Practical implications - Allowing for dual citizenship helps generate more naturalizations among Muslims. Originality/value - The paper provides a test of the relative importance of the integration approach in comparison with the ethnicity model; demonstrating that integration in German society has a stronger effect on naturalization than ethnic origin and religion.

Suggested Citation

  • Klaus F. Zimmermann & Amelie F. Constant & Liliya Gataullina, 2009. "Naturalization proclivities, ethnicity and integration," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(1/2), pages 70-82, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eme:ijmpps:v:30:y:2009:i:1/2:p:70-82
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Constant, Amelie F. & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2005. "Legal Status at Entry, Economic Performance, and Self-employment Proclivity: A Bi-national Study of Immigrants," IZA Discussion Papers 1910, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Constant, Amelie & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 2007. "Circular Migration: Counts of Exits and Years Away from the Host Country," CEPR Discussion Papers 6438, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Bernt Bratsberg & James F. Ragan & Zafar M. Nasir, 2002. "The Effect of Naturalization on Wage Growth: A Panel Study of Young Male Immigrants," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(3), pages 568-597, July.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Amelie F. Constant & Annabelle Krause & Ulf Rinne & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2017. "Reservation wages of first- and second-generation migrants," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(13), pages 945-949, July.
    2. Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2011. "Migration, Ethnicity and Economic Integration," Chapters,in: International Handbook on the Economics of Integration, Volume III, chapter 7 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Brenner, Jan, 2010. "Life-cycle variations in the association between current and lifetime earnings: Evidence for German natives and guest workers," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 392-406, April.
    4. Don J. DeVoretz, 2013. "The economics of immigrant citizenship ascension," Chapters,in: International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, chapter 25, pages 470-488 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. Amelie F. Constant & Annabelle Krause & Ulf Rinne & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2011. "Economic preferences and attitudes of the unemployed: Are natives and second generation migrants alike?," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(7), pages 825-851, October.
    6. Christina Gathmann & Nicolas Keller, 2014. "Returns to Citizenship?: Evidence from Germany's Recent Immigration Reforms," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 656, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    7. Denis Fougère, 2011. "Social and Labor Market Integration of Ethnic Minorities in France: Has the French Integration Model Broken Down?," Chapters,in: Ethnic Diversity in European Labor Markets, chapter 5 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    8. repec:zbw:rwirep:0095 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Denis Fougère & Mirna Safi, 2009. "Naturalization and employment of immigrants in France (1968-1999)," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(1/2), pages 83-96, March.
    10. Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2013. "Immigrants, ethnic identities and the nation-state," Chapters,in: International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, chapter 14, pages 259-275 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    11. Jan Brenner, 2009. "Life-Cycle Variations in the Association between Current and Lifetime Earnings – Evidence for German Natives and Guest Workers," Ruhr Economic Papers 0095, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
    12. repec:dem:demres:v:36:y:2017:i:43 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Fougère, Denis & Safi, Mirna, 2008. "The Effects of Naturalization on Immigrants’ Employment Probability (France, 1968–1999)," IZA Discussion Papers 3372, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Citizenship; Integration; Germany; Immigrants; Ethnic groups;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

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