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Naturalization and employment of immigrants in France (1968-1999)

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  • Denis Fougère
  • Mirna Safi

Abstract

Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine the empirical link between the naturalization of immigrants and their subsequent employment status in France from 1968 to 1999. Design/methodology/approach - For that purpose, longitudinal data coming from a panel dataset which follows almost 1 percent of the French population from 1968 to 1999 through information contained in the 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990 and 1999 French censuses were used. Control for the potential endogeneity of the naturalization process was through a bivariate probit model. Findings - It was found that naturalization has a significant positive relationship with immigrants' subsequent employability. This is particularly true for groups of immigrants who have a low probability of employment in the host country. Research limitations/implications - The dataset can only measure statistical association between naturalization and employment, given the lack of timing information. Interpretation in terms of causality is thus not permitted. Originality/value - The dataset used is especially valuable for studying social integration of immigrants, since it allows significant samples of immigrants, according to their country of origin, these groups being generally too small in other surveys.

Suggested Citation

  • Denis Fougère & Mirna Safi, 2009. "Naturalization and employment of immigrants in France (1968-1999)," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(1/2), pages 83-96, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eme:ijmpps:v:30:y:2009:i:1/2:p:83-96
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Klaus F. Zimmermann & Amelie F. Constant & Liliya Gataullina, 2009. "Naturalization proclivities, ethnicity and integration," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(1/2), pages 70-82, March.
    2. Chiswick, Barry R, 1978. "The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-born Men," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 897-921, October.
    3. Bernt Bratsberg & James F. Ragan & Zafar M. Nasir, 2002. "The Effect of Naturalization on Wage Growth: A Panel Study of Young Male Immigrants," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(3), pages 568-597, July.
    4. Marianne Bertrand & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2004. "Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(4), pages 991-1013, September.
    5. DeVoretz, Don J. & Pivnenko, Sergiy, 2004. "The Economic Causes and Consequences of Canadian Citizenship," IZA Discussion Papers 1395, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Bevelander, Pieter & Veenman, Justus, 2006. "Naturalisation and Socioeconomic Integration: The Case of the Netherlands," IZA Discussion Papers 2153, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Edo Anthony, 2015. "The Impact of Immigration on Native Wages and Employment," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 15(3), pages 1151-1196, July.
    2. Daniel Crown & Alessandra Faggian, 2019. "Naturalization and the productivity of foreign-born doctorates," Journal of Geographical Systems, Springer, vol. 21(4), pages 533-556, December.
    3. Guzi, Martin & Kahanec, Martin & Kureková, Lucia Mýtna, 2015. "What Explains Immigrant-Native Gaps in European Labor Markets: The Role of Institutions," IZA Discussion Papers 8847, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    4. Romain Aeberhardt & Denis Fougère & Julien Pouget & Roland Rathelot, 2010. "Wages and employment of French workers with African origin," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 23(3), pages 881-905, June.
    5. Engdahl, Mattias, 2014. "Naturalizations and the economic and social integration of immigrants," Working Paper Series, Center for Labor Studies 2014:6, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    6. Don J. DeVoretz, 2013. "The economics of immigrant citizenship ascension," Chapters, in: Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann (ed.), International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, chapter 25, pages 470-488, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    7. Denis Fougère, 2011. "Social and Labor Market Integration of Ethnic Minorities in France: Has the French Integration Model Broken Down?," Chapters, in: Martin Kahanec & Klaus F. Zimmermann (ed.), Ethnic Diversity in European Labor Markets, chapter 5, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    8. Engdahl, Mattias, 2014. "Naturalizations and the economic and social integration of immigrants," Working Paper Series 2014:11, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
    9. Sajons, Christoph, 2019. "Birthright citizenship and parental labor market integration," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 1-22.
    10. Zenón Jiménez-Ridruejo & Carlos Borondo Arribas, 2011. "Wage Assimilation of Immigrants in Spain," Working Papers 11-02, Asociación Española de Economía y Finanzas Internacionales.
    11. Joachim Jarreau, 2015. "The Impact of Naturalizations on Job Mobility and Wages: Evidence from France," Working Papers halshs-01117449, HAL.
    12. Anthony Edo, 2013. "The Impact of Immigration on Native Wages and Employment," Post-Print halshs-00881131, HAL.
    13. Davide Azzolini & Raffaele Guetto, 2017. "The impact of citizenship on intermarriage: Quasi-experimental evidence from two European Union Eastern enlargements," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 36(43), pages 1299-1336.
    14. Ilić, Dragan, 2018. "Prejudice in naturalization decisions: Theory and evidence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 1-18.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Immigration; Citizenship; Employment; France;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

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