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Where Are the Babies? Labor Market Conditions and Fertility in Europe

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  • Adsera, Alicia

    () (Princeton University)

Abstract

Cross-country differences in both the age at first birth and fertility are substantial in Europe. The paper uses the European Community Household Panel 1994-2000 to investigate the relationship between unemployment of both women (and their spouses) with the timing and number of children. Maternity postponement is acute in countries with high and persistent unemployment since the mid 1980s. Moreover, the paper examines how fertility varies, for a similar level of unemployment, as a function of country-specific institutional arrangements. Wide access to part-time and to permanent positions (such as those in the public sector) is correlated with faster transitions to births. Short-term contracts are associated with delayed fertility instead.

Suggested Citation

  • Adsera, Alicia, 2005. "Where Are the Babies? Labor Market Conditions and Fertility in Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 1576, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1576
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Le variabili nascoste delle contro-riforme pensionistiche
      by Lorenzo Battisti in Pensieri Economici on 2012-03-12 02:08:00

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Tomas Kögel, 2006. "An explanation of the positive correlation between fertility and female employment across Western European countries," Discussion Paper Series 2006_11, Department of Economics, Loughborough University.
    2. Emilia Bono & Andrea Weber & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2015. "Fertility and economic instability: the role of unemployment and job displacement," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 28(2), pages 463-478, April.
    3. Alicia Adsera, 2011. "The interplay of employment uncertainty and education in explaining second births in Europe," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 25(16), pages 513-544, August.
    4. Anja Oppermann, 2012. "A New Color in the Picture: The Impact of Educational Fields on Fertility in Western Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 496, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    5. Melinda Mills & Nicoletta Balbo, 2011. "The influence of the family network on the realisation of fertility intentions," Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, Vienna Institute of Demography (VID) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, vol. 9(1), pages 179-206.
    6. Marah Curtis & Jane Waldfogel, 2009. "Fertility Timing of Unmarried and Married Mothers: Evidence on Variation Across U.S. Cities from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 28(5), pages 569-588, October.
    7. Ariane Pailhé & Anne Solaz, 2012. "The influence of employment uncertainty on childbearing in France: A tempo or quantum effect?," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 26(1), pages 1-40, January.
    8. A. Bovenberg, 2005. "Balancing Work and Family Life during the Life Course," De Economist, Springer, vol. 153(4), pages 399-423, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    fertility; short-term contracts; part-time; public sector; unemployment; maternity benefits;

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor
    • J6 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
    • H3 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents

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