The impact of individual and aggregate unemployment on fertility in Norway
Continuous-time hazard models are estimated from register-based birth, migration, education and unemployment histories for the complete Norwegian population, linked with aggregate data for municipalities. The analysis covers the period 1992-98. First-birth rates are slightly higher among women who had been unemployed twelve months before than among others, whereas higher-order birth rates are slightly lower. Although men’s unemployment has a more pronounced negative effect, according to paternity rate models, the overall conclusion is that unemployment in Norway has had a negligible impact on fertility through individual-level effects. Aggregate-level effects are more important. Higher-order birth rates are lower in municipalities where men’s or women’s unemployment is high than elsewhere. All in all, the peak unemployment level of 6% experienced in 1993 is found to be associated with a reduction of about 0.08 in total fertility. The results accord well with economic theories for first and higher-order births that are based on the assumption that women are still the primary caretakers.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Macunovich, D.J. & Easterlin, R.A., 1990. "Application Of Granger-Sims Causality Tests To Monthly Fertility Data, 1958-1984," Department of Economics Working Papers 142, Department of Economics, Williams College.
- ûivind Anti Nilsen & Alf Erling Risa & Alf Torstensen, 2000.
"Transitions from employment among young Norwegian workers,"
Journal of Population Economics,
Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(1), pages 21-34.
- Nilsen, O.A. & Risa, A.E. & Torstensen, A., 2000. "Transitions from Employment among Young Norwegian Workers," Norway; Department of Economics, University of Bergen 210, Department of Economics, University of Bergen.
- Macunovich, D.J., 1996. "Relative Income and Price of Time: Exploring their effcts on U.S. Fertility and Female Labor Force Participation, 1963-1993," Department of Economics Working Papers 174, Department of Economics, Williams College.
- Tzannatos, Zafiris & Symons, James, 1989. "An Economic Approach to Fertility in Britain since 1860," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 2(2), pages 121-138.
- Roed,K. & Zhang,T., 2000. "Labour market transitions and economic incentives," Memorandum 15/2000, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
- John Ermisch, 1988. "Econometric Analysis of Birth Rate Dynamics in Britain," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(4), pages 563-576.
- De Cooman, Eric & Ermisch, John F & Joshi, Heather, 1985. "The Next Birth and the Labour Market: A Dynamic Model of Births in England and Wales," CEPR Discussion Papers 37, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:dem:demres:v:6:y:2002:i:10. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Editorial Office)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.