IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Teacher Quality and Learning Outcomes in Kindergarten


  • M. Caridad Araujo

    (Institute for Fiscal Studies)

  • Pedro Carneiro

    () (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London)

  • Yyannú Cruz-Aguayo

    (Institute for Fiscal Studies)

  • Norbert Schady

    (Institute for Fiscal Studies)


We assigned two cohorts of kindergarten students, totaling more than 24,000 children, to teachers within schools with a rule that is as-good-as-random. We collected data on children at the beginning of the school year, and applied 12 tests of math, language and executive function (EF) at the end of the year. All teachers were filmed teaching for a full day, and the videos were coded using a wellknown classroom observation tool, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (or CLASS). We find substantial classroom effects: A one-standard deviation increase in classroom quality results in 0.11, 0.11, and 0.07 standard deviation higher test scores in language, math, and EF, respectively. Teacher behaviors, as measured by the CLASS, are associated with higher test scores. Parents recognize better teachers, but do not change their behaviors appreciably to take account of differences in teacher quality.

Suggested Citation

  • M. Caridad Araujo & Pedro Carneiro & Yyannú Cruz-Aguayo & Norbert Schady, 2016. "Teacher Quality and Learning Outcomes in Kindergarten," CeMMAP working papers CWP09/16, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  • Handle: RePEc:ifs:cemmap:09/16

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:deveco:v:133:y:2018:i:c:p:448-467 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Andrew Bacher-Hicks & Mark J. Chin & Thomas J. Kane & Douglas O. Staiger, 2017. "An Evaluation of Bias in Three Measures of Teacher Quality: Value-Added, Classroom Observations, and Student Surveys," NBER Working Papers 23478, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Nina Drange & Marte Rønning, 2017. "Child care center staff composition and early child development," Discussion Papers 870, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
    4. Marina Bassi & Costas Meghir & Ana Reynoso, 2016. "Education Quality and Teaching Practices," NBER Working Papers 22719, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Francisco Gallego & Emma Näslund-Hadley & Mariana Alfonso, 2017. "Tailoring Instruction to Improve Mathematics Skills in Preschools: A Randomized Evaluation," Documentos de Trabajo 487, Instituto de Economia. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile..
    6. Sarah Flèche, 2017. "Teacher Quality, Test Scores and Non-Cognitive Skills: Evidence from Primary School Teachers in the UK," CEP Discussion Papers dp1472, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    7. Daphna Bassok & Thomas Dee & Scott Latham, 2017. "The Effects of Accountability Incentives in Early Childhood Education," NBER Working Papers 23859, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. repec:eee:ecoedu:v:64:y:2018:i:c:p:214-250 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. repec:eee:cysrev:v:86:y:2018:i:c:p:120-127 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. repec:eee:pubeco:v:161:y:2018:i:c:p:15-30 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Marina Bassi & Rae Lesser Blumberg & Mercedes Mateo Díaz, 2016. "Under the "Cloak of Invisibility": Gender Bias in Teaching Practices and Learning Outcomes," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 94336, Inter-American Development Bank.
    12. repec:eee:jcecon:v:46:y:2018:i:2:p:582-597 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Georg F. Camehl & Pia S. Schober & C. Katharina Spiess, 2017. "Information Asymmetries between Parents and Educators in German Childcare Institutions," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1693, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    14. Gershenson, Seth & Hart, Cassandra M. D. & Lindsay, Constance A. & Papageorge, Nicholas W., 2017. "The Long-Run Impacts of Same-Race Teachers," IZA Discussion Papers 10630, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    15. Hahn, Youjin & Wang, Liang Choon & Yang, Hee-Seung, 2018. "Does greater school autonomy make a difference? Evidence from a randomized natural experiment in South Korea," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 161(C), pages 15-30.
    16. Cruz-Aguayo, Yyannú & Ibarrarán, Pablo & Schady, Norbert, 2017. "Do tests applied to teachers predict their effectiveness?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 108-111.
    17. Marc Steeg & Sander Gerritsen, 2016. "Teacher Evaluations and Pupil Achievement Gains: Evidence from Classroom Observations," De Economist, Springer, vol. 164(4), pages 419-443, December.
    18. repec:eee:injoed:v:60:y:2018:i:c:p:33-50 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Arlen Guarín & Carlos Medina & Christian Posso, 2017. "Calidad y Cobertura de la Educación Secundaria Pública y Privada en Colombia, y sus Costos Ocultos," Borradores de Economia 1006, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.

    More about this item


    Teacher quality; learning; test scores;

    JEL classification:

    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ifs:cemmap:09/16. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Emma Hyman). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.