IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pen/papers/14-010.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Wealth Gradients in Early Childhood Cognitive Development in Five Latin American Countries

Author

Listed:
  • Norbert Schady

    () (Inter-American Development Bank (IDB))

  • Jere Behrman

    () (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania)

  • Maria Caridad Araujo

    () (World Bank Group; Inter-American Development Bank (IDB))

  • Rodrigo Azuero

    () (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania)

  • Raquel Bernal

    () (Universidad de los Andes, Colombia - Department of Economics; Northwestern University - Department of Economics)

  • David Bravo

    () (Department of Economics, Universidad de Chile)

  • Florencia López Bóo

    () (Inter-American Development Bank (IDB); IZA)

  • Karen Macours

    () (Paris School of Economics)

  • Daniela Marshall

    () (Populations Study Center, University of Pennsylvania)

  • Christina Paxson

    () (Office of the Dean, Brown University)

  • Renos Vakis

    () (District of Columbia, Washington DC, The World Bank)

Abstract

Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and non-cognitive ability appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, we use the same measure of receptive language ability for all five countries. We find important differences in development in early childhood across countries, and steep socioeconomic gradients within every country. For the three countries where we can follow children over time, there are few substantive changes in scores once children enter school. Our results are robust to different ways of defining socioeconomic status, to different ways of standardizing outcomes, and to selective non-response on our measure of cognitive development.

Suggested Citation

  • Norbert Schady & Jere Behrman & Maria Caridad Araujo & Rodrigo Azuero & Raquel Bernal & David Bravo & Florencia López Bóo & Karen Macours & Daniela Marshall & Christina Paxson & Renos Vakis, 2014. "Wealth Gradients in Early Childhood Cognitive Development in Five Latin American Countries," PIER Working Paper Archive 14-010, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  • Handle: RePEc:pen:papers:14-010
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://economics.sas.upenn.edu/sites/default/files/filevault/14-010.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Manski, Charles F, 1990. "Nonparametric Bounds on Treatment Effects," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 319-323, May.
    2. Karen Macours & Norbert Schady & Renos Vakis, 2012. "Cash Transfers, Behavioral Changes, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(2), pages 247-273, April.
    3. Almond, Douglas & Currie, Janet, 2011. "Human Capital Development before Age Five," Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier.
    4. James Heckman & Flavio Cunha, 2007. "The Technology of Skill Formation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(2), pages 31-47, May.
    5. Carneiro, Pedro & Heckman, James J., 2003. "Human Capital Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 821, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Flavio Cunha & James J. Heckman & Susanne M. Schennach, 2010. "Estimating the Technology of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skill Formation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 78(3), pages 883-931, May.
    7. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
    8. Orazio P. Attanasio & Camila Fernández & Emla O. A. Fitzsimons & Sally M. Grantham-McGregor & Costas Meghir & Marta Rubio-Codina, 2014. "Using the Infrastructure of a Conditional Cash Transfer Program to Deliver a Scalable Integrated Early Child Development Program in Colombia: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 62cf429ea5b74678a945aa87b, Mathematica Policy Research.
    9. Christina Paxson & Norbert Schady, 2007. "Cognitive Development among Young Children in Ecuador: The Roles of Wealth, Health, and Parenting," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(1).
    10. Cunha, Flavio & Heckman, James J. & Lochner, Lance, 2006. "Interpreting the Evidence on Life Cycle Skill Formation," Handbook of the Economics of Education, Elsevier.
    11. repec:idb:brikps:publication-detail,7101.html?id=32886 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Karen Macours & Norbert Schady & Renos Vakis, 2012. "Cash Transfers, Behavioral Changes, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(2), pages 247-273, April.
    13. Christina Paxson & Norbert Schady, 2010. "Does Money Matter? The Effects of Cash Transfers on Child Development in Rural Ecuador," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(1), pages 187-229, October.
    14. Greg J. Duncan & Katherine Magnuson, 2013. "Investing in Preschool Programs," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 27(2), pages 109-132, Spring.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Juan F. Castro, 2015. "Effects of early childhood development interventions on parental behaviour: evidence from a home-visiting programme in Peru," Working Papers 15-07, Centro de Investigación, Universidad del Pacífico.
    2. Lopez Boo, Florencia & Canon, Maria Eugenia, 2014. "Reversal of gender gaps in child development: Evidence from young children in India," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 124(1), pages 55-59.
    3. Marta Rubio-Codina & María Caridad Araujo & Orazio P. Attanasio & Sally Grantham-McGregor, 2016. "Concurrent Validity and Feasibility of Short Tests Currently Used to Measure Early Childhood Development in Large Scale Studies: Methodology and Results," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 95556, Inter-American Development Bank.
    4. Santiago Levy & Norbert Schady, 2013. "Latin America's Social Policy Challenge: Education, Social Insurance, Redistribution," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 27(2), pages 193-218, Spring.
    5. Bernal, Raquel & Fernández, Camila, 2013. "Subsidized childcare and child development in Colombia: Effects of Hogares Comunitarios de Bienestar as a function of timing and length of exposure," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 241-249.
    6. Diana Lopez-Avila, 2016. "Child Discipline and Social Programs: Evidence from Colombia," Working Papers halshs-01305961, HAL.
    7. M. Caridad Araujo & Mariano Bosch & Norbert Schady, 2017. "Can Cash Transfers Help Households Escape an Inter-Generational Poverty Trap?," NBER Chapters,in: The Economics of Asset Accumulation and Poverty Traps National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Lopez Boo, Florencia & Canon, Maria Eugenia, 2014. "Reversal of gender gaps in child development: Evidence from young children in India," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 124(1), pages 55-59.
    9. Adrien Bouguen & Deon Filmer & Karen Macours & Sophie Naudeau, 2018. "Preschool and Parental Response in a Second Best World: Evidence from a School Construction Experiment," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 53(2), pages 474-512.
    10. World Bank, 2017. "Pre-Primary Education in Mongolia," World Bank Other Operational Studies 26402, The World Bank.
    11. M. Caridad Araujo & Mariano Bosch & Norbert Schady, 2017. "Can Cash Transfers Help Households Escape an Inter-Generational Poverty Trap?," NBER Chapters,in: The Economics of Poverty Traps National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Bastos, Paulo & Straume, Odd Rune, 2016. "Preschool Education in Brazil: Does Public Supply Crowd Out Private Enrollment?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 496-510.
    13. Juan F. Castro, 2015. "Linear decompositions of cognitive achievement gaps a cautionary note and an illustration using peruvian data," Working Papers 15-08, Centro de Investigación, Universidad del Pacífico.
    14. repec:wbk:wbpubs:26490 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Alderman, Harold & Behrman, Jere R. & Glewwe, Paul, 2015. "A framework for physical growth and child development:," IFPRI discussion papers 1435, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    16. Bouguen, Adrien & Filmer, Deon & Macours, Karen & Naudeau, Sophie, 2013. "Impact evaluation of three types of early childhood development interventions in Cambodia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6540, The World Bank.
    17. Leer, Jane & López Bóo, Florencia & Perez Expósito, Ana & Powell, Christine, 2016. "A Snapshot on the Quality of Seven Home Visit Parenting Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean," IZA Discussion Papers 10296, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    18. Bietenbeck, Jan & Ericsson, Sanna & Wamalwa, Fredrick M., 2017. "Preschool Attendance, School Progression, and Cognitive Skills in East Africa," IZA Discussion Papers 11212, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    19. Adrien Bouguen & Deon Filmer & Karen Macours & Sophie Naudeau, 2014. "Preschool and Parental Response in a Second Best World: Evidence from a School Construction Experiment," Working Papers hal-01090361, HAL.
    20. Bouguen, Adrien & Filmer, Deon & Macours, Karen & Naudeau, Sophie, 2014. "Preschools and early childhood development in a second best world: Evidence from a scaled-up experiment in Cambodia," CEPR Discussion Papers 10170, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    21. Juan F. Castro, 2017. "Revisiting Dynamic Complementarity in the Production of Cognitive Skill and its Implications for a Cognitive Achievement Gap Decomposition," Working Papers 2017-105, Peruvian Economic Association.
    22. Jorge M. Agüero & Maithili Ramachandran, 2016. "The Intergenerational Transmission of Schooling among the Education-Rationed," Working papers 2016-25, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    23. Bando, Rosangela & López Bóo, Florencia, 2016. "Sex-Differences in Language and Socio-Emotional Skills: Evidence from Large Scale Studies of Very Young Children," IZA Discussion Papers 10315, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    24. Florencia López Bóo, 2013. "Intercontinental Evidence on Socioeconomic Status and Early Childhood: Cognitive Skills: Is Latin America Different?," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 4588, Inter-American Development Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    early childhood; socioeconomic gaps; Latin-American;

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pen:papers:14-010. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Administrator). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/deupaus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.