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The Loan Contract with Costly State Verification and Subjective Beliefs

  • Carsten Krabbe Nielsen

    ()

    (Istituto Politica Economica, Universita Cattolica and Korea University)

We generalize the characterization of the loan contract due to Gale and Hellwig (1985) to the case of risk aversion of the borrower and diverse subjective beliefs about the outcome of the investment. We continue to assume costly state verification (Townsend, 1979) i.e. that the lender must incur costs in order to observe the outcome of the project. Contract terms now reflect returns on capital as well as risk sharing and trade on the differences in probabilities. Because there are no financial markets where agents could purchase insurance for state contingencies, private contracting replaces markets for contingent claims. This also means that verification states are not necessarily interpreted as "default" states. We characterize the optimal contract showing that (i) the contractual payoff in verification states varies by states in accord with risk aversion and probability belief of the two parties, and (ii) the verification region may consist of several intervals. We provide conditions and examples to show that when the borrower is more optimistic than the bank, there may be fewer verification regions.

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File URL: http://econ.korea.ac.kr/~ri/WorkingPapers/w0918.pdf
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Paper provided by Institute of Economic Research, Korea University in its series Discussion Paper Series with number 0918.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iek:wpaper:0918
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  1. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Kenneth A. Froot, 1985. "Using Survey Data to Test Some Standard Propositions Regarding Exchange Rate Expectations," NBER Working Papers 1672, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Guillaume Carlier & Ludovic Renou, 2005. "A costly state verification model with diversity of opinions," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 497-504, 02.
  3. Frankel, Jeffrey A & Froot, Kenneth A, 1987. "Using Survey Data to Test Standard Propositions Regarding Exchange Rate Expectations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(1), pages 133-53, March.
  4. Gaia Garino & Peter Simmons, 2006. "Costly State Verification with Varying Risk Preferences and Liability," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(1), pages 71-110, 02.
  5. Mookherjee, Dilip & Png, Ivan, 1989. "Optimal Auditing, Insurance, and Redistribution," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 104(2), pages 399-415, May.
  6. Innes, Robert D., 1990. "Limited liability and incentive contracting with ex-ante action choices," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 45-67, October.
  7. Shinji Takagi, 1991. "Exchange Rate Expectations: A Survey of Survey Studies," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 38(1), pages 156-183, March.
  8. Khalil, Fahad & Parigi, Bruno M, 1998. "Loan Size as a Commitment Device," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(1), pages 135-50, February.
  9. Xavier Freixas & Jean-Charles Rochet, 1997. "Microeconomics of Banking," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262061937, June.
  10. Gale, Douglas & Hellwig, Martin, 1985. "Incentive-Compatible Debt Contracts: The One-Period Problem," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(4), pages 647-63, October.
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