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The Effect of Antimalarial Campaigns on Child Mortality and Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Joshua Wilde

    (MPIDR - Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research - Max-Planck-Gesellschaft)

  • Bénédicte H. Apouey

    () (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Joseph Coleman

    (USF - University of South Florida)

  • Gabriel Picone

    (USF - University of South Florida)

Abstract

We examine the extent to which recent declines in child mortality and fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa can be attributed to insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). Exploiting the rapid increase in ITNs since the mid-2000s, we employ a difference-in-differences estimation strategy to identify the causal effect of ITNs on mortality and fertility. We show that the ITN distribution campaigns reduced all-cause child mortality, but surprisingly increased total fertility rates in the short run in spite of reduced desire for children and increased contraceptive use. We explain this paradox in two ways. First, we show evidence for an unexpected increase in fecundity and sexual activity due to the better health environment after the ITN distribution. Second, we show evidence that the effect on fertility is positive only temporarily – lasting only 1-3 years after the beginning of the ITN distribution programs – and then becomes negative. Taken together, these results suggest the ITN distribution campaigns may have caused fertility to increase unexpectedly and temporarily, or that these increases may just be a tempo effect – changes in fertility timing which do not lead to increased completed fertility.

Suggested Citation

  • Joshua Wilde & Bénédicte H. Apouey & Joseph Coleman & Gabriel Picone, 2019. "The Effect of Antimalarial Campaigns on Child Mortality and Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa," PSE Working Papers halshs-02285933, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:psewpa:halshs-02285933
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-02285933
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Quamrul H. Ashraf & David N. Weil & Joshua Wilde, 2013. "The Effect of Fertility Reduction on Economic Growth," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 39(1), pages 97-130, March.
    2. Bénédicte H. Apouey & Gabriel Picone & Joshua Wilde & Joseph Coleman & Robyn Kibler, 2017. "Paludisme et anémie des enfants en Afrique subsaharienne : effet de la distribution de moustiquaires," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 68(2), pages 163-197.
    3. Matthias Doepke, 2005. "Child mortality and fertility decline: Does the Barro-Becker model fit the facts?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 18(2), pages 337-366, June.
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    5. Adrienne M. Lucas, 2013. "The Impact of Malaria Eradication on Fertility," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 61(3), pages 607-631.
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    7. Denis Cogneau & Pauline Rossi, 2019. "Malaria control and infant mortality in Africa," PSE Working Papers hal-01543033, HAL.
    8. Vikram Pathania, 2014. "The Impact of Malaria Control on Infant Mortality in Kenya," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 62(3), pages 459-487.
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    11. David Cutler & Winnie Fung & Michael Kremer & Monica Singhal & Tom Vogl, 2010. "Early-Life Malaria Exposure and Adult Outcomes: Evidence from Malaria Eradication in India," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 72-94, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Andrew E. Clark & Anthony Lepinteur, 2020. "A Natural Experiment on Job Insecurity and Fertility in France," PSE Working Papers halshs-02540036, HAL.
    2. Denis Cogneau & Pauline Rossi, 2019. "Malaria control and infant mortality in Africa," Working Papers hal-01543033, HAL.
    3. Giulia La Mattina & Olga N. Shemyakina, 2017. "Domestic Violence and Childhood Exposure to Armed Conflict: Attitudes and Experiences," HiCN Working Papers 255, Households in Conflict Network.
    4. Shampa Bhattacharjee & Aparajita Dasgupta, 2019. "Disease eradication, infant mortality and fertility response :Evidence from malaria eradication in India," Working Papers 22, Ashoka University, Department of Economics.
    5. Andrew E. Clark & Anthony Lepinteur, 2020. "A Natural Experiment on Job Insecurity and Fertility in France," Working Papers halshs-02540036, HAL.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Malaria; Bed nets; Child mortality; Fertility; Sub-Saharan Africa;

    JEL classification:

    • J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
    • Z0 - Other Special Topics - - General

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