IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Education, Convergence and Carbon Dioxide Growth per Capita


  • Somlanaré Romuald Kinda

    () (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - UdA - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)


This paper examines the existence of convergence and the importance of education on carbon dioxide growth per capita, over the period 1970-2004 for 85 countries. We use panel data and apply GMM-System estimation. This rigorous approach takes into account the observed and unobserved heterogeneity of countries, and solves the endogeneity problems associated with some variables. Our results suggest a divergence in per capita carbon dioxide emissions around the world, and that education is not a factor in carbon dioxide emissions growth. Contrary to commonly held beliefs based on intuition, we provide evidence that, in developing countries, there is no convergence, and that education is not a factor in carbon dioxide growth. In developed countries, we find a convergence for per capita carbon dioxide emissions. Education was found to be a factor in pollution growth, although its effect is mitigated by the presence of political institutions.

Suggested Citation

  • Somlanaré Romuald Kinda, 2011. "Education, Convergence and Carbon Dioxide Growth per Capita," Post-Print halshs-00684315, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00684315
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server:

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Stephen Bond & Anke Hoeffler & Jonathan Temple, 2001. "GMM Estimation of Empirical Growth Models," Economics Papers 2001-W21, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    2. Francesco Caselli & Wilbur John Coleman, 2001. "Cross-Country Technology Diffusion: The Case of Computers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 328-335, May.
    3. William Brock & M. Taylor, 2010. "The Green Solow model," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 127-153, June.
    4. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    5. McMahon, Walter W., 2002. "Education and Development: Measuring the Social Benefits," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199250721.
    6. Alison Stegman, 2005. "Convergence In Carbon Emissions Per Capita," CAMA Working Papers 2005-08, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    7. Stephen Bond & Anke Hoeffler, 2001. "GMM Estimation of Empirical Growth Models," Economics Series Working Papers 2001-W21, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    8. Farzin, Y. Hossein & Bond, Craig A., 2006. "Democracy and environmental quality," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 213-235, October.
    9. Bimonte, Salvatore, 2002. "Information access, income distribution, and the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 145-156, April.
    10. Joakim Westerlund & Syed Basher, 2008. "Testing for Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Using a Century of Panel Data," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 40(1), pages 109-120, May.
    11. Quah, Danny, 2000. "Cross-country growth comparison : theory to empirics," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 2251, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Convergence in carbon dioxide; Education; System GMM;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00684315. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (CCSD). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.