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The Kyoto mechanisms and the diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the BRICS


  • Isabel Maria Bodas Freitas

    (Polito - Politecnico di Torino [Torino], MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - GEM - Grenoble Ecole de Management)

  • Eva Dantas

    (SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research - University of Sussex, German Development Institute (DIE))

  • Michiko Iizuka

    (UNU-MERIT - UNU-MERIT - United Nations University - Maastricht University)


This paper examines whether the Kyoto mechanisms have stimulated the diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the BRICS, i.e. Brazil, Russian, India China and South Africa. We examine the patterns of diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the BRICS, the factors associated with their diffusion, and the incentives provided by the Kyoto mechanisms. Preliminary analysis suggests that the Kyoto mechanisms may be supporting the spread of existing technologies, regardless if such technologies are still closely tied to environmental un-sustainability, rather than the development and diffusion of more sustainable variants of renewable energy technologies. This raises questions about the incentives provided by the Kyoto mechanisms for the diffusion of cleaner variants of renewable energy technologies in the absence of indigenous technological efforts and capabilities in sustainable variants, and national policy initiatives to attract and build on Kyoto mechanism projects. We provide an empirical analysis using aggregated national data from the World Development Indicators, the International Energy Agency, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and secondary sources.

Suggested Citation

  • Isabel Maria Bodas Freitas & Eva Dantas & Michiko Iizuka, 2012. "The Kyoto mechanisms and the diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the BRICS," Post-Print hal-01488032, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:hal-01488032
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2011.11.055
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Chia-Jung Tu & Ming-Chung Chang & Chiang-Ping Chen, 2016. "Progressive Time-Weighted Dynamic Energy Efficiency, Energy Decoupling Rate, and Decarbonization: An Empirical Study on G7 and BRICS," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(9), pages 1-17, September.
    2. Tadeusz Skoczkowski & Sławomir Bielecki & Joanna Wojtyńska, 2019. "Long-Term Projection of Renewable Energy Technology Diffusion," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(22), pages 1-24, November.
    3. Allan, Corey & Jaffe, Adam B. & Sin, Isabelle, 2014. "Diffusion of Green Technology: A Survey," International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, now publishers, vol. 7(1), pages 1-33, April.
    4. Chirambo, Dumisani, 2018. "Towards the achievement of SDG 7 in sub-Saharan Africa: Creating synergies between Power Africa, Sustainable Energy for All and climate finance in-order to achieve universal energy access before 2030," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 600-608.
    5. Sanya Carley & Elizabeth Baldwin & Lauren M. MacLean & Jennifer N. Brass, 2017. "Global Expansion of Renewable Energy Generation: An Analysis of Policy Instruments," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 68(2), pages 397-440, October.
    6. Pueyo, Ana, 2013. "Enabling frameworks for low-carbon technology transfer to small emerging economies: Analysis of ten case studies in Chile," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 370-380.
    7. Wong, Chan-Yuan & Fatimah Mohamad, Zeeda & Keng, Zi-Xiang & Ariff Azizan, Suzana, 2014. "Examining the patterns of innovation in low carbon energy science and technology: Publications and patents of Asian emerging economies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 789-802.
    8. Zaman, Khalid & Abdullah, Alias bin & Khan, Anwar & Nasir, Mohammad Rusdi bin Mohd & Hamzah, Tengku Adeline Adura Tengku & Hussain, Saddam, 2016. "Dynamic linkages among energy consumption, environment, health and wealth in BRICS countries: Green growth key to sustainable development," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 1263-1271.
    9. Chirambo, Dumisani, 2016. "Addressing the renewable energy financing gap in Africa to promote universal energy access: Integrated renewable energy financing in Malawi," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 793-803.
    10. Santillán Soto, Néstor & García Cueto, O. Rafael & Ojeda Benítez, Sara & Lambert Arista, Alejandro Adolfo, 2014. "Photovoltaic low power systems and their environmental impact:Yuma, Arizona, U.S.A. case study and projections for Mexicali, Mexico," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 172-177.
    11. Koo, Junmo & Han, Gwon Deok & Choi, Hyung Jong & Shim, Joon Hyung, 2015. "Wind-speed prediction and analysis based on geological and distance variables using an artificial neural network: A case study in South Korea," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 93(P2), pages 1296-1302.
    12. Adenle, Ademola A. & Manning, Dale T. & Arbiol, Joseph, 2017. "Mitigating Climate Change in Africa: Barriers to Financing Low-Carbon Development," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 123-132.
    13. Brito, Thiago Luis Felipe & Islam, Towhidul & Stettler, Marc & Mouette, Dominique & Meade, Nigel & Moutinho dos Santos, Edmilson, 2019. "Transitions between technological generations of alternative fuel vehicles in Brazil," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 134(C).
    14. Zhao, Zhen-yu & Sun, Guang-zheng & Zuo, Jian & Zillante, George, 2013. "The impact of international forces on the Chinese wind power industry," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 131-141.


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