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Gender, assets, and agricultural development programs: A conceptual framework:

Author

Listed:
  • Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela
  • Johnson, Nancy
  • Quisumbing, Agnes R.
  • Njuki, Jemimah
  • Behrman, Julia A.
  • Rubin, Deborah
  • Peterman, Amber
  • Waithanji, Elizabeth

Abstract

Being able to access, control, and own productive assets such as land, labor, finance, and social capital enables people to create stable and productive lives. Yet relatively little is known about how agricultural development programs can most effectively deliver these outcomes of well-being, empowerment, and higher income in a way that acknowledges differential access to and control over assets by men and women. After reviewing the literature on gender and assets, this paper offers a conceptual framework for understanding the gendered pathways through which asset accumulation occurs, including attention to not only men’s and women’s assets but also those they share in joint control and ownership. Unlike previous frameworks, this model depicts the gendered dimensions of each component of the pathway in recognition of the evidence that men and women not only control, own, or dispose of assets in different ways, but also access, control, and own different kinds of assets. The framework generates gender-specific hypotheses that can be tested empirically: i) Different types of assets enable different livelihoods, with a greater stock and diversity of assets being associated with more diverse livelihoods and better well-being outcomes; ii) Men and women use different types of assets to cope with different types of shocks; iii) Interventions that increase men’s and women’s stock of a particular asset improve the bargaining power of the individual(s) who control that asset; and iv) Interventions and policies that reduce the gender gap in assets are better able to achieve development outcomes related to food security, health, and nutrition and other aspects of well-being related to agency and empowerment. The implications of these gender differences for designing agricultural development interventions to increase asset growth and returns to assets as well as for value chain development are discussed. Based on this analysis, additional gaps in knowledge and possible investigations to address them are identified.

Suggested Citation

  • Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela & Johnson, Nancy & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Njuki, Jemimah & Behrman, Julia A. & Rubin, Deborah & Peterman, Amber & Waithanji, Elizabeth, 2011. "Gender, assets, and agricultural development programs: A conceptual framework:," CAPRi working papers 99, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:fpr:worpps:99
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. repec:taf:jdevst:v:52:y:2016:i:3:p:377-395 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Rubin, Deborah & Manfre, Cristina & Waithanji, Elizabeth & van den Bold, Mara & Olney, Deanna K. & Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela, 2014. "Closing the gender asset gap: Learning from value chain development in Africa and Asia:," IFPRI discussion papers 1321, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    3. Njuki, Jemimah & Waithanji, Elizabeth & Sakwa, Beatrice & Kariuki, Juliet & Mukewa, Elizabeth & Ngige, John, 2014. "Can market-based approaches to technology development and dissemination benefit women smallholder farmers? A qualitative assessment of gender dynamics in the ownership, purchase, and use of irrigation," IFPRI discussion papers 1357, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Roy, Shalini & Njuki, Jemimah & Tanvin, Kakuly & Waithanji, Elizabeth, 2013. "Can dairy value-chain projects change gender norms in rural Bangladesh? Impacts on assets, gender norms, and time use:," IFPRI discussion papers 1311, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    5. Johnson, Nancy L. & Kovarik, Chiara & Meinzen-Dick, Ruth & Njuki, Jemimah & Quisumbing, Agnes, 2016. "Gender, Assets, and Agricultural Development: Lessons from Eight Projects," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 295-311.
    6. repec:gam:jlands:v:7:y:2018:i:1:p:18-:d:128854 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Paris, Thelma & Pede, Valerien & Luis, Joyce & Sharma, Raman & Singh, Abha & Stipular, Jeffrey & Villanueva, Donald, 2015. "Understanding men’s and women’s access to and control of assets and the implications for agricultural development projects: A case study in rice-farming households in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India:," IFPRI discussion papers 1437, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    8. Mara van den Bold & Andrew Dillon & Deanna Olney & Marcellin Ouedraogo & Abdoulaye Pedehombga & Agnes Quisumbing, 2015. "Can Integrated Agriculture-Nutrition Programmes Change Gender Norms on Land and Asset Ownership? Evidence from Burkina Faso," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(9), pages 1155-1174, September.
    9. Me-Nsope, Nathalie & Larkins, Michelle, 2016. "Beyond crop production: Gender relations along the pigeon pea value chain and implications for income and food security in Malawi," Journal of Gender, Agriculture and Food Security, Africa Centre for Gender, Social Research and Impact Assessment, vol. 1(3), November.
    10. Lambrecht, Isabel & Vanlauwe, Bernard & Maertens, Miet, 2014. "Agricultural extension in eastern DR Congo: Does Gender Matter?," 2014 International Congress, August 26-29, 2014, Ljubljana, Slovenia 182731, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    11. Johnson, Nancy & Njuki, Jemimah & Waithanji, Elizabeth & Nhambeto, Marinho & Rogers, Martha & Kruger, Elizabeth Hutchinson, 2013. "The gendered impacts of agricultural asset transfer projects: Lessons from the Manica Smallholder Dairy Development Program:," CAPRi working papers 115, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    12. Savath, Vivien & Fletschner, Diana & Peterman, Amber & Santos, Florence, 2014. "Land, assets, and livelihoods: Gendered analysis of evidence from Odisha State in India:," IFPRI discussion papers 1323, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    13. Muntaha Rakib & Julia Anna Matz, 2016. "The Impact of Shocks on Gender-differentiated Asset Dynamics in Bangladesh," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(3), pages 377-395, March.
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