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The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Updates and Extensions

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Abstract

Using cross-country and panel regressions, we investigate to what extent gender gaps in education and employment (proxied using gender gaps in labor force participation) reduce economic growth. Using most recent data and investigating a long time period (1960-2000), we update the results of previous studies on education gaps on growth and extend the analysis to employment gaps using panel data. We find that gender gaps in education and employment significantly reduce economic growth. The combined ‘costs’ of education and employment gaps in Middle East and North Africa and South Asia amount respectively to 0.9-1.7 and 0.1- 1.6 percentage point differences in growth compared to East Asia. Gender gaps in employment appear to have an increasing effect on economic growth differences between regions, with the Middle East and North Africa and South Asia suffering from slower growth in female employment.

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  • Stephan Klasen & Francesca Lamanna, 2008. "The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Updates and Extensions," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 175, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:got:iaidps:175
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    Cited by:

    1. Juan Sebastián Muñoz, 2014. "Re-estimating the Gender Gap in Colombian Academic Performance," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 4762, Inter-American Development Bank.
    2. Wokia-azi N. Kumase & Herve Bisseleua & Stephan Klasen, 2010. "Opportunities and constraints in agriculture: A gendered analysis of cocoa production in Southern Cameroon," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 27, Courant Research Centre PEG.
    3. Schober, Thomas & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 2009. "Gender Wage Inequality and Economic Growth: Is There Really a Puzzle?," IZA Discussion Papers 4323, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Astrid Sneyers & Anneleen Vandeplas, 2013. "Girl Power in Agricultural Production: How Much Does it Yield? A Case-Study on the Dairy Sector in India," LICOS Discussion Papers 34113, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    5. Boris Branisa & Stephan Klasen & Maria Ziegler, 2009. "Why we should all care about social institutions related to gender inequality," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 15, Courant Research Centre PEG.
    6. IBOURK, Aomar & AMAGHOUSS, Jabrane, 2015. "Inequality In Education In The Mena Region: A Macroeconometric Investigation Using Normative Indicators," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 15(2), pages 129-146.
    7. Ghosh, Saibal & Vinod, D., 2017. "What Constrains Financial Inclusion for Women? Evidence from Indian Micro data," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 60-81.
    8. Boris Branisa & Stephan Klasen & Maria Ziegler, 2009. "New Measures of Gender Inequality: The Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI)and its Subindices," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 10, Courant Research Centre PEG.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender inequality; growth; education; employment; discrimination;

    JEL classification:

    • J7 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • O4 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity

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