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Gender inequality and economic growth: a time series analysis for Pakistan


  • Pervaiz, Zahid
  • Chani, Muhammad Irfan
  • Jan, Sajjad Ahmad
  • Chaudhary, Amatul R.


This paper attempts to analyze the impact of gender inequality on economic growth of Pakistan. An annual time series data for the period of 1972-2009 has been used in this study. We have regressed growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita on labour force growth, investment, trade openness and a composite index of gender inequality. The results reveal that labour force growth, investment and trade openness have statistically significant and positive impact whereas gender inequality has a significant and negative effect on economic growth of Pakistan.

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  • Pervaiz, Zahid & Chani, Muhammad Irfan & Jan, Sajjad Ahmad & Chaudhary, Amatul R., 2011. "Gender inequality and economic growth: a time series analysis for Pakistan," MPRA Paper 37176, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:37176

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    1. Erturk, Korkut & Cagatay, Nilufer, 1995. "Macroeconomic consequences of cyclical and secular changes in feminization: An experiment at gendered macromodeling," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(11), pages 1969-1977, November.
    2. Haddad, Lawrence & Hoddinott, John & Alderman, Harold & DEC, 1994. "Intrahousehold resource allocation : an overview," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1255, The World Bank.
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    5. Galor, Oded & Weil, David N, 1996. "The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 374-387, June.
    6. Phillips, P.C.B., 1986. "Understanding spurious regressions in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 311-340, December.
    7. Matthias Busse & Christian Spielmann, 2006. "Gender Inequality and Trade," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(3), pages 362-379, August.
    8. Granger, C. W. J. & Newbold, P., 1974. "Spurious regressions in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 111-120, July.
    9. Esteve-Volart, Berta, 2004. "Gender discrimination and growth: theory and evidence from India," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6641, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    10. Stephen Knowles & Paula K. Lorgelly, 2002. "Are educational gender gaps a brake on economic development? Some cross-country empirical evidence," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(1), pages 118-149, January.
    11. Stephanie Seguino, 2000. "Accounting for Gender in Asian Economic Growth," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 27-58.
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    Cited by:

    1. Aboohamidi, Abbas & Chidmi, Benaissa, 2013. "Female Labor Force Participation in Pakistan and Some MENA Countries," 2013 Annual Meeting, February 2-5, 2013, Orlando, Florida 143097, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
    2. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:1:p:121-:d:125733 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz, 2013. "The Impact Of Gender Wage Gap On Sectoral Economic Growth – Cross-Country Approach," Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, Institute of Economic Research, vol. 8(3), pages 103-122, September.
    4. Dobdinga C. Fonchamnyo & Nubonyin Hilda Fokong, 2017. "Educational Gender Gap, Economic Growth and Income Distribution: An Empirical Study of the Interrelationship in Cameroon," International Journal of Economics and Finance, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 9(3), pages 168-176, March.
    5. Mussarat Khadija Khan, 2016. "Contribution of female human capital in economic growth: an empirical analysis of Pakistan (1972–2012)," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 50(2), pages 709-728, March.
    6. Siegmann, K.A. & Majid, H., 2014. "Empowering growth in Pakistan?," ISS Working Papers - General Series 595, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.

    More about this item


    Gender inequality; Economic Growth; Time Series;

    JEL classification:

    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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